Methods: The authors review relevant facial anatomy as it relates to facial aging and the resultant structural changes that occur. These changes are important for the cosmetic physician to identify and understand in order to perform both safe and effective placement of neuromodulators and soft-tissue fillers. In this anatomic review, the authors review key structures that serve as landmarks for successful treatment using both neuromodulators and fillers.
Conclusions: Knowledge of key facial anatomical structures allows the cosmetic physician to perform injection of neuromodulators and soft-tissue fillers in a reproducible manner to optimizing patient safety and results.
Copyright (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. on behalf of the American Society of Plastic Surgeons. All rights reserved.
Three-dimensional Facial Anatomy: Structure and Function as It Relates to Injectable Neuromodulators and Soft Tissue Fillers