Purpose: PIM kinases are a family of serine/threonine kinases recently proposed as therapeutic targets in oncology. In the present work, we have investigated the effects of the novel pan-PIM kinase inhibitor, PIM447, on myeloma cells and myeloma-associated bone disease using different preclinical models.
Experimental Design: In vitro/ex vivo cytotoxicity of PIM447 was evaluated on myeloma cell lines and patient samples. Synergistic combinations with standard treatments were analyzed with Calcusyn Software. PIM447 effects on bone cells were assessed on osteogenic and osteoclastogenic cultures. The mechanisms of PIM447 were explored by immunoblotting, qPCR, and immunofluorescence. A murine model of disseminated multiple myeloma was employed for in vivo studies.
Results: PIM447 is cytotoxic for myeloma cells due to cell-cycle disruption and induction of apoptosis mediated by a decrease in phospho-Bad (Ser112) and c-Myc levels and the inhibition of mTORC1 pathway. Importantly, PIM447 demonstrates a very strong synergy with different standard treatments such as bortezomib + dexamethasone (combination index, CI = 0.002), lenalidomide + dexamethasone (CI = 0.065), and pomalidomide + dexamethasone (CI = 0.077). PIM447 also inhibits in vitro osteoclast formation and resorption, downregulates key molecules involved in these processes, and partially disrupts the F-actin ring, while increasing osteoblast activity and mineralization. Finally, PIM447 significantly reduced the tumor burden and prevented tumor-associated bone loss in a disseminated murine model of human myeloma.
Conclusions: Our results demonstrate dual antitumoral and bone-protective effects of PIM447. This fact, together with the very strong synergy exhibited with standard-of-care treatments, supports the future clinical development of this drug in multiple myeloma. Clin Cancer Res; 23(1); 225–38. ©2016 AACR.