Purpose: Therapeutic regimens for adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) are limited with unsatisfactory results, thereby warranting development of novel therapies. This study investigated antitumor activity and toxicity of alemtuzumab with regard to response, duration of response, progression-free survival, and overall survival in patients with human T-cell lymphotropic virus-1 (HTLV-1)-associated ATL.
Experimental Design: Twenty-nine patients with chronic, acute, and lymphomatous types of ATL were enrolled in a single-institution, nonrandomized, open-label phase II trial wherein patients received intravenous alemtuzumab 30 mg three times weekly for a maximum of 12 weeks.
Results: Twenty-nine patients were evaluable for response and toxicity. The overall objective response was 15 of 29 patients [95% confidence interval (CI), 32.5%–70.6%]. The 15 patients who responded manifested a median time to response of 1.1 months. Median response duration was 1.4 months for the whole group and 14.5 months among responders. Median progression-free survival was 2.0 months. Median overall survival was 5.9 months. The most common adverse events were 2 with vasovagal episodes (7%) and 3 with hypotensive episodes (10%), leukopenia (41%) grade 3 and (17%) grade 4, lymphocytopenia (59%) grade 3, neutropenia (31%) grade 3, anemia (24%), and thrombocytopenia (10%). All patients developed cytomegalovirus antigenemia (CMV). Three were symptomatic and all responded to antiviral therapy. Grade 3 or 4 infections were reported in 4 (14%) of patients.
Conclusions: Alemtuzumab induced responses in patients with acute HTLV-1–associated ATL with acceptable toxicity, but with short duration of responses. These studies support inclusion of alemtuzumab in novel multidrug therapies for ATL. Clin Cancer Res; 23(1); 35–42. ©2016 AACR.