Purpose of review
The goal of this review is to provide an actualized overview on vestibular migraine in childhood and adolescence, with focus on the epidemiology and clinical presentation as well as its treatment.
Vertigo spells in childhood can evolve into other periodic syndromes and/or migraine types and persist even into adulthood.
Vestibular migraine (VM) and benign paroxysmal vertigo are the most common causes of vertigo in children and adolescents. The diagnostic criteria for VM are dizziness and vertigo, headache, phonophobia and photophobia, and visual aura. The prevention of attacks is the treatment for children and adolescents with VM, as is recommended for migraine with or without aura. Thus, non-pharmacological measures are the first-line option; when these measures fail or daily activities are notably affected, drugs are administrated. Psychological assessment and cognitive behavioral therapy are also important therapeutic measures in this patient group. There is still insufficient research on VM in children and adolescents; future studies on clinical presentation, evolvement, and specific treatment are necessary.