Several complications may arise in patients wearing complete prosthetic appliances, including denture-associated infections and mucosal stomatitis due to Candida species. This study evaluated the activity of anti-Candida agents in denture adhesive and the cytotoxicities of these preparations for primary human gingival epithelial (GE) keratinocytes.
Materials and Methods
The anti-Candida activities of antimicrobial peptides, antimicrobial lipids, and antifungal agents against C. albicans ATCC 64124 or HMV4C were assessed in microdilution assays containing water or 1% denture adhesive. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and the minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBC) were determined. The cytotoxicities of denture adhesive compounded with these agents were assessed in 1.0 × 105 primary GE keratinocytes in LGM-3 media with resazurin.
Lactoferricin B, SMAP28, sphingosine, dihydrosphingosine, and phytosphingosine in 1% denture adhesive lost antimicrobial activity for C. albicans (p < 0.05). Amphotericin B, chlorhexidine dihydrochloride, chlorhexidine gluconate, fluconazole, and nystatin in 1% denture adhesive or compounded directly into denture adhesive and then diluted to 1% adhesive, did not lose antimicrobial activity. Compounded formulations were not cytotoxic (LD50 > 100.0 μg/ml) against primary human GE keratinocytes.
Antimicrobial peptides and antimicrobial lipids had diminished activities in 1% adhesive, suggesting that components in adhesives may inactivate local innate immune factors in the oral cavity, possibly predisposing denture wearers to Candida species infections. More importantly, antifungal agents retained their anti-C. albicans activities in denture adhesive, strongly suggesting that antifungal agents could be candidates for inclusion in adhesive formulations and used as prescribed topical treatments for individuals with denture stomatitis.