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Medicine by Alexandros G.Sfakianakis,Anapafseos 5 Agios Nikolao

Medicine by Alexandros G.Sfakianakis

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Non-invasive diagnostic tools in the field of head and neck oncology : A liquid biopsy for head and neck cancers

The development of a liquid biopsy for head and neck cancers via  ScienceDirect Publication: Oral Oncology Publication ...

Δευτέρα, 14 Νοεμβρίου 2016

Hyainailourine and teratodontine cranial material from the late Eocene of Egypt and the application of parsimony and Bayesian methods to the phylogeny and biogeography of Hyaenodonta (Placentalia, Mammalia)

Hyainailourine and teratodontine cranial material from the late Eocene of Egypt and the application of parsimony and Bayesian methods to the phylogeny and biogeography of Hyaenodonta (Placentalia, Mammalia):

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Hyaenodonta is a diverse, extinct group of carnivorous mammals that included weasel- to rhinoceros-sized species. The oldest-known hyaenodont fossils are from the middle Paleocene of North Africa and the antiquity of the group in Afro-Arabia led to the hypothesis that it originated there and dispersed to Asia, Europe, and North America. Here we describe two new hyaenodont species based on the oldest hyaenodont cranial specimens known from Afro-Arabia. The material was collected from the latest Eocene Locality 41 (L-41, ∼34 Ma) in the Fayum Depression, Egypt. Akhnatenavus nefertiticyon sp. nov. has specialized, hypercarnivorous molars and an elongate cranial vault. In A. nefertiticyon the tallest, piercing cusp on M1–M2 is the paracone. Brychotherium ephalmos gen. et sp. nov. has more generalized molars that retain the metacone and complex talonids. In B. ephalmos the tallest, piercing cusp on M1–M2 is the metacone. We incorporate this new material into a series of phylogenetic analyses using a character-taxon matrix that includes novel dental, cranial, and postcranial characters, and samples extensively from the global record of the group. The phylogenetic analysis includes the first application of Bayesian methods to hyaenodont relationships. B. ephalmos is consistently placed within Teratodontinae, an Afro-Arabian clade with several generalist and hypercarnivorous forms, and Akhnatenavus is consistently recovered in Hyainailourinae as part of an Afro-Arabian radiation. The phylogenetic results suggest that hypercarnivory evolved independently three times within Hyaenodonta: in Teratodontinae, in Hyainailourinae, and in Hyaenodontinae. Teratodontines are consistently placed in a close relationship with Hyainailouridae (Hyainailourinae + Apterodontinae) to the exclusion of “proviverrines,” hyaenodontines, and several North American clades, and we propose that the superfamily Hyainailouroidea be used to describe this relationship. Using the topologies recovered from each phylogenetic method, we reconstructed the biogeographic history of Hyaenodonta using parsimony optimization (PO), likelihood optimization (LO), and Bayesian Binary Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) to examine support for the Afro-Arabian origin of Hyaenodonta. Across all analyses, we found that Hyaenodonta most likely originated in Europe, rather than Afro-Arabia. The clade is estimated by tip-dating analysis to have undergone a rapid radiation in the Late Cretaceous and Paleocene; a radiation currently not documented by fossil evidence. During the Paleocene, lineages are reconstructed as dispersing to Asia, Afro-Arabia, and North America. The place of origin of Hyainailouroidea is likely Afro-Arabia according to the Bayesian topologies but it is ambiguous using parsimony. All topologies support the constituent clades–Hyainailourinae, Apterodontinae, and Teratodontinae–as Afro-Arabian and tip-dating estimates that each clade is established in Afro-Arabia by the middle Eocene.

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Below is an alphabetical list of the educational picture slideshows available on eMedicineHealth. Each slideshow covers a medical or health topic and includes images, illustrations, or pictures and summary information discussing the topic. Scroll through each slide by clicking on the Next button. At the end of each slideshow you'll find links to additional related information on the topic.


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Tinnitus

1. Chadha NK, Gordon KA, James AL, Papsin BC. Tinnitus is prevalent in children with cochlear implants. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology. 2009;73:671-675. [abstract]

2. Akdogan O, Ozcan I, Ozbek C, Dere H. Tinnitus after cochlear implantation. Auris Nasus Larynx. 2009;36:210-212. [abstract]

3. Pan T, Tyler RS, Ji H, Coelho C, Gehringer AK, Gogel SA. Changes in the tinnitus handicap questionnaire after cochlear implantation. American Journal of Audiology. 2009;18:144-151. [abstract]

4. Andersson G, Freijd A, Baguley DM, Idrizbegovic E. Tinnitus distress, anxiety, depression, and hearing problems among cochlear implant patients with tinnitus. Journal of the American Academy of Audiology. 2009;20:315-319. [abstract]

5. Rothholtz VS, Tang Q, Wu EC, Fine EL, Djalilian H, Zeng F-G. Exploring the parametric space of tinnitus suppression in a patient with a cochlear implant. Laryngoscope. 2009;119.

6. Di NW, Cianfrone F, Scorpecci A, Cantore I, Giannantonio S, Paludetti G. Transtympanic electrical stimulation for immediate and long-term tinnitus suppression. International Tinnitus Journal. 2009;15:100-106.[abstract]

7. Litre CF, Theret E, Tran H et al. Surgical treatment by electrical stimulation of the auditory cortex for intractable tinnitus. Brain Stimulation. 2009;2:132-137. [abstract]

8. Evans RW, Ishiyama G. Migraine with transient unilateral hearing loss and tinnitus. Headache: The Journal of Head & Face Pain. 2009;49:756-759. [abstract]

9. Pirodda A, Brandolini C, Raimondi MC, Ferri GG, Borghi C. Tinnitus as a warning for preventing vasovagal syncope. Medical Hypotheses. 2009;73:370-371. [abstract]

10. Anderson JE, Teitel D, Wu YW. Venous hum causing tinnitus: case report and review of the literature. Clinical Pediatrics. 2009;48:87-89. [abstract]

11. Liess BD, Lollar KW, Christiansen SG, Vaslow D. Pulsatile tinnitus: a harbinger of a greater ill? Head & Neck. 2009;31:269-273. [abstract]

12. Singh DP, Forte AJ, Brewer MB, Nowygrod R. Bilateral carotid endarterectomy as treatment of vascular pulsatile tinnitus. Journal of Vascular Surgery. 2009;50:183-185. [abstract]

13. Delgado F, Munoz F, Bravo-Rodriguez F, Jurado-Ramos A, Oteros R. Treatment of dural arteriovenous fistulas presenting as pulsatile tinnitus. Otology and Neurotology. 2009;30:897-902. [abstract]

14. Cowley PO, Jones R, Tuch P, McAuliffe W. Pulsatile tinnitus from reversal of flow in an aberrant occipital artery: Resolved after carotid artery stenting. American Journal of Neuroradiology. 2009;30:995-997. [abstract]

15. Stimmer H, Borrmann A, Loer C, Arnold W, Rummeny EJ. Monaural tinnitus from a contralateral inferior colliculus hemorrhage. Audiology & Neurotology. 2009;14:35-38. [abstract]

16. Latifpour DH, Grenner J, Sjodahl C. The effect of a new treatment based on somatosensory stimulation in a group of patients with somatically related tinnitus. International Tinnitus Journal. 2009;15:94-99. [abstract]

17. Department of Health. Provision of services for adults with tinnitus: a good practice guide. 2009. [full text]

18. DH. Tinnitus Map of Medicine care pathway. 2010. [Full text]

19. BTA. Tinnitus: guidelines for primary care. 2010. [Full text]

20. Schneider P, Andermann M, Wengenroth M et al. Reduced volume of Heschl's gyrus in tinnitus. NeuroImage. 2009;45:927-939. [abstract]

21. Landgrebe M, Langguth B, Rosengarth K et al. Structural brain changes in tinnitus: grey matter decrease in auditory and non-auditory brain areas. NeuroImage. 2009;46:213-218. [abstract]

22. Melcher JR, Levine RA, Bergevin C, Norris B. The auditory midbrain of people with tinnitus: Abnormal sound-evoked activity revisited. Hearing Research. 2009;257:63-74. [abstract]

23. Lanting CP, de KE, van DP. Neural activity underlying tinnitus generation: Results from PET and fMRI. Hearing Research. 2009;255:1-13. [abstract]

24. Kaltenbach JA. Insights on the origins of tinnitus: an overview of recent research. Hearing Journal. 2009;62:26-31. [Full text]

25. Shulman A, Goldstein B, Strashun AM. Final common pathway for tinnitus: theoretical and clinical implications of neuroanatomical substrates. International Tinnitus Journal. 2009;15:5-50. [abstract]

26. Schutte NS, Noble W, Malouff JM, Bhullar N. Evaluation of a model of distress related to tinnitus. International Journal of Audiology. 2009;48:428-432. [abstract]

27. Hesser H, Pereswetoff-Morath CE, Andersson G. Consequences of controlling background sounds: the effect of experiential avoidance on tinnitus interference. Rehabilitation Psychology. 2009;54:381-390.[abstract]

28. Argstatter H, Krick C, Bolay HV. Music therapy for chronic tinnitus. Heidelberg treatment model. Psychotherapeut. 2009;54:17-26. [abstract]

29. Lugli M, Romani R, Ponzi S, Bacciu S, Parmigiani S. The windowed sound therapy: A new empirical approach for an effective personalized treatment of tinnitus. International Tinnitus Journal. 2009;15:51-61.[abstract]

30. Langguth B, Salvi R, Elgoyhen AB. Emerging pharmacotherapy of tinnitus. Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs. 2009;14:687-702. [abstract]

31. Campbell KCM. Emerging pharmacologic treatments for hearing loss and tinnitus. ASHA Leader. 2009;14:14-18. [Full text]

32. Hesser H, Westin V, Hayes SC, Andersson G. Clients' in-session acceptance and cognitive defusion behaviors in acceptance-based treatment of tinnitus distress. Behaviour Research & Therapy. 2009;47:523-528. [abstract]

33. Hesser H, Andersson G. The role of anxiety sensitivity and behavioral avoidance in tinnitus disability. International Journal of Audiology. 2009;48:295-299. [abstract]

34. Shulman A, Goldstein B. Subjective idiopathic tinnitus and palliative care: a plan for diagnosis and treatment. Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America. 2009;42:15-38. [abstract]

35. Forti S, Costanzo S, Crocetti A, Pignataro L, Del BL, Ambrosetti U. Are results of tinnitus retraining therapy maintained over time? 18-month follow-up after completion of therapy. Audiology & Neuro-Otology. 2009;14:286-289. [abstract]

36. Bessman P, Heider T, Watten VP, Watten RG. The tinnitus intensive therapy habituation program: a 2-year follow-up pilot study on subjective tinnitus. Rehabilitation Psychology. 2009;54:133-138. [abstract]

37. Gudex C, Skellgaard PH, West T, Sorensen J. Effectiveness of a tinnitus management programme: A 2-year follow-up study. BMC Ear, Nose and Throat Disorders. 2009;9. [Full text]

38. Henry J, Zaugg T, Myers P, Kendall C, Turbin M. Principles and application of educational counseling used in progressive audiologic tinnitus management. Noise and Health. 2009;11:33-48. [abstract]

1. Hazell JW, Jastreboff PJ. Tinnitus. I: Auditory mechanisms: a model for tinnitus and hearing impairment. J Otolaryngol. 1990;19:1-5. [Abstract]

2. Jastreboff PJ, Jastreboff MM. Tinnitus Retraining Therapy (TRT) as a method for treatment of tinnitus and hyperacusis patients. J Am Acad Audiol. 2000 Mar;11(3):162-77. [Abstract]

3. Marcondes RA, Sanchez TG, Kii MA, Langguth et al. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation improve tinnitus in normal hearing patients: a double-blind controlled, clinical and neuroimaging outcome study. Eur J Neurol. 2009. [Epub ahead of print] ) [Abstract]

4. Cannon SC Pathomechanisms in channelopathies of skeletal muscle and brain. Annu Rev Neurosci. 2006;29:387-415. [Abstract]

5. Davies E, Knox E, Donaldson I. The usefulness of nimodipine, an L-calcium channel antagonist, in the treatment of tinnitus. Br J Audiol. 1994;28:125-129. [Abstract]

6. Baguley DM, Jones S, Wilkins I, Axon PR, Moffat DA. The inhibitory effect of intravenous lidocaine infusion on tinnitus after translabyrinthine removal of vestibular schwannoma: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Otol Neurotol. 2005;26:169-176. [Abstract]

Eggermont JJ. Cortical tonotopic map reorganization and its implications for treatment of tinnitus. Acta Otolaryngol Suppl. 2006;9-12. [Abstract]

Hoke ES, Muhlnickel W, Ross B, Hoke M. Tinnitus and event-related activity of the auditory cortex. Audiol Neurootol. 1998;3:300-331. [Abstract]

Mirz F, Pedersen B, Ishizu K et al. Positron emission tomography of cortical centers of tinnitus. Hear Res. 1999;134:133-144. [Abstract]

Muhlnickel W, Elbert T, Taub E, Flor H. Reorganization of auditory cortex in tinnitus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:10340-10343. [Abstract]

Norena AJ, Eggermont JJ. Enriched acoustic environment after noise trauma abolishes neural signs of tinnitus. Neuroreport. 2006;17:559-563. [Abstract]

Schlee W, Hartmann T, Langguth B, Weisz N. Abnormal resting-state cortical coupling in chronic tinnitus. BMC Neurosci. 2009;10:11. [Full text]

Schlee W, Mueller N, Hartmann T, Keil J, Lorenz I, Weisz N. Mapping cortical hubs in tinnitus. BMC Biol. 2009;7:80. [Full text]

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HIPPOCRATE'S OATH

"I swear by Apollo, the healer, Asclepius, Hygieia, and Panacea, and I take to witness all the gods, all the goddesses, to keep according to my ability and my judgment, the following Oath and agreement:

To consider dear to me, as my parents, him who taught me this art; to live in common with him and, if necessary, to share my goods with him; To look upon his children as my own brothers, to teach them this art.

I will prescribe regimens for the good of my patients according to my ability and my judgment and never do harm to anyone.

I will not give a lethal drug to anyone if I am asked, nor will I advise such a plan; and similarly I will not give a woman a pessaryto cause an abortion.

But I will preserve the purity of my life and my arts.

I will not cut for stone, even for patients in whom the disease is manifest; I will leave this operation to be performed by practitioners, specialists in this art.

In every house where I come I will enter only for the good of my patients, keeping myself far from all intentional ill-doing and all seduction and especially from the pleasures of love with women or with men, be they free or slaves.

All that may come to my knowledge in the exercise of my profession or in daily commerce with men, which ought not to be spread abroad, I will keep secret and will never reveal.

If I keep this oath faithfully, may I enjoy my life and practice my art, respected by all men and in all times; but if I swerve from it or violate it, may the reverse be my lot."

MAIMONIDE'S PRAYER

"Almighty God, Thou has created the human body with infinite wisdom. Ten thousand times ten thousand organs hast Thou combined in it that act unceasingly and harmoniously to preserve the whole in all its beauty the body which is the envelope of the immortal soul. They are ever acting in perfect order, agreement and accord. Yet, when the frailty of matter or the unbridling of passions deranges this order or interrupts this accord, then forces clash and the body crumbles into the primal dust from which it came. Thou sendest to man diseases as beneficent messengers to foretell approaching danger and to urge him to avert it.

"Thou has blest Thine earth, Thy rivers and Thy mountains with healing substances; they enable Thy creatures to alleviate their sufferings and to heal their illnesses. Thou hast endowed man with the wisdom to relieve the suffering of his brother, to recognize his disorders, to extract the healing substances, to discover their powers and to prepare and to apply them to suit every ill. In Thine Eternal Providence Thou hast chosen me to watch over the life and health of Thy creatures. I am now about to apply myself to the duties of my profession. Support me, Almighty God, in these great labors that they may benefit mankind, for without Thy help not even the least thing will succeed.

"Inspire me with love for my art and for Thy creatures. Do not allow thirst for profit, ambition for renown and admiration, to interfere with my profession, for these are the enemies of truth and of love for mankind and they can lead astray in the great task of attending to the welfare of Thy creatures. Preserve the strength of my body and of my soul that they ever be ready to cheerfully help and support rich and poor, good and bad, enemy as well as friend. In the sufferer let me see only the human being. Illumine my mind that it recognize what presents itself and that it may comprehend what is absent or hidden. Let it not fail to see what is visible, but do not permit it to arrogate to itself the power to see what cannot be seen, for delicate and indefinite are the bounds of the great art of caring for the lives and health of Thy creatures. Let me never be absent- minded. May no strange thoughts divert my attention at the bedside of the sick, or disturb my mind in its silent labors, for great and sacred are the thoughtful deliberations required to preserve the lives and health of Thy creatures.

"Grant that my patients have confidence in me and my art and follow my directions and my counsel. Remove from their midst all charlatans and the whole host of officious relatives and know-all nurses, cruel people who arrogantly frustrate the wisest purposes of our art and often lead Thy creatures to their death.

"Should those who are wiser than I wish to improve and instruct me, let my soul gratefully follow their guidance; for vast is the extent of our art. Should conceited fools, however, censure me, then let love for my profession steel me against them, so that I remain steadfast without regard for age, for reputation, or for honor, because surrender would bring to Thy creatures sickness and death.

"Imbue my soul with gentleness and calmness when older colleagues, proud of their age, wish to displace me or to scorn me or disdainfully to teach me. May even this be of advantage to me, for they know many things of which I am ignorant, but let not their arrogance give me pain. For they are old and old age is not master of the passions. I also hope to attain old age upon this earth, before Thee, Almighty God!

"Let me be contented in everything except in the great science of my profession. Never allow the thought to arise in me that I have attained to sufficient knowledge, but vouchsafe to me the strength, the leisure and the ambition ever to extend my knowledge. For art is great, but the mind of man is ever expanding.

"Almighty God! Thou hast chosen me in Thy mercy to watch over the life and death of Thy creatures. I now apply myself to my profession. Support me in this great task so that it may benefit mankind, for without Thy help not even the least thing will succeed."

Information for Health Professionals

Information for Patients

Modern challenged parts of the oath:

  1. To teach medicine to the sons of my teacher. In the past, medical schools gave preferential consideration to the children of physicians.
  2. To practice and prescribe to the best of my ability for the good of my patients, and to try to avoid harming them. This beneficial intention is the purpose of the physician. However, this item is still invoked in the modern discussions of euthanasia.
  3. I will not give a lethal drug to anyone if I am asked, nor will I advise such a plan. Physician organizations in most countries have strongly denounced physician participation in legal executions. However, in a small number of cases, most notably the U.S. states of Oregon,[10] Washington,[11]Montana,[12] and in the Kingdom of the Netherlands,[13] a doctor can prescribe euthanasia with the patient's consent.
  4. Similarly, I will not give a woman a pessary to cause an abortion. Since the legalization of abortion in many countries, the inclusion of the anti-abortion sentence of the Hippocratic oath has been a source of contention.
  5. To avoid violating the morals of my community. Many licensing agencies will revoke a physician's license for offending the morals of the community ("moral turpitude").
  6. I will not cut for stone, even for patients in whom the disease is manifest; I will leave this operation to be performed by practitioners, specialists in this art. The "stones" referred to are kidney stones or bladder stones, removal of which was judged too menial for physicians, and therefore was left for barbers (the forerunners of modern surgeons). Surgery was not recognized as a specialty at that time. This sentence is now interpreted as acknowledging that it is impossible for any single physician to maintain expertise in all areas. It also highlights the different historical origins of the surgeon and the physician.
  7. To keep the good of the patient as the highest priority. There may be other conflicting 'good purposes,' such as community welfare, conserving economic resources, supporting the criminal justice system, or simply making money for the physician or his employer that provide recurring challenges to physicians
http://www.worldallergy.org/educational_programs/world_allergy_forum/barcelona2008/rabe/

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