Carotid or vertebral artery dissection is the result of a tear in the vessel lining wherein the intima separates the media. This creates a false or pseudo lumen, often accompanied by hemorrhage into the arterial wall. Dissection of these craniocervical vessels often manifests with pain alone but, if untreated, may result in severe neurologic compromise. The causes of dissection are multifactorial, including spontaneous, iatrogenic, and traumatic insults. Regardless of etiology, treatment consists primarily of anticoagulation, whereas endovascular therapy is reserved for cases with persistent thrombus or flow limitation. Given the high risk of neurological compromise or death and the propensity of these injuries to occur in younger individuals, early diagnosis of carotid and vertebral artery dissections is critical. Although angiography remains the criterion standard for diagnosis, advances in noninvasive imaging have placed magnetic resonance and computed tomography at the forefront of diagnosis. This article examines the current imaging modalities used to diagnose this under-recognized entity.