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Medicine by Alexandros G.Sfakianakis,Anapafseos 5 Agios Nikolao

Medicine by Alexandros G.Sfakianakis

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Non-invasive diagnostic tools in the field of head and neck oncology : A liquid biopsy for head and neck cancers

The development of a liquid biopsy for head and neck cancers via  ScienceDirect Publication: Oral Oncology Publication ...

Τετάρτη, 12 Οκτωβρίου 2016

Dendritic cell vaccination (DCV) : Realistically, tangible benefits with DC immunotherapy will likely be realized by employing a multifaceted strategy of DC delivery (e.g., uniting in vivo DC-targeting and ex vivo-manipulated DCs in individual trials), rationally combining multivalent DC-based vaccines with established anticancer agents, and utilizing these multimodality approaches in early disease or reduced-tumor settings. Furthermore, the repeatedly proven safety of DC vaccination places the onus on regulatory agencies to allow investigators to bypass resource-intensive phase I testing and focus the majority of efforts in evaluating DCs’ therapeutic efficacy. These developments might expedite the availability of clinically effective DC approaches for cancer immunotherapy.








Number of clinical trials employing DC immunotherapy, organized by involved organ and phase of development. Data was obtained using the search terms “dendritic cells” and “cancer” on www.clinicaltrials.gov.
MalignancyPhase III trialsPhase II trialsPhase I trials
Solid*--49 (includes 1 phase I/II)
Brain210 (includes 1 phase II/III)18 (includes 2 phase I/II)
Breast19 (includes 1 phase II/III)8 (includes 3 phase I/II)
Cervical----1
Colorectal--86 (includes 4 phase I/II)
Gastric--11 (includes 1 phase I/II)
Hepatocellular Carcinoma--12 (includes 1 phase I/II)
Hematologic Malignancies11411 (includes 4 phase I/II)
Lung17 (includes 1 phase II/III)4 (includes 1 phase I/II)
Melanoma22838 (includes 14 phase I/II)
Mesothelioma----2
Ovarian--84 (includes 2 phase I/II)
Pancreatic--13 (includes 1 phase I/II)
Peritoneal--11 (includes 1 phase I/II)
Prostate41914 (includes 8 phase I/II)
Renal cell11413 (includes 9 phase I/II)
Sarcoma--75 (includes 3 phase I/II)
*includes multiple solid organ cancers


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Global view of a multimodality approach to optimizing DC immunotherapy. Antigen-specific T-cell responses can be induced by traditional ex vivo-manipulated DCs or DC receptor targeting in vivo. In ex vivo manipulation, monocyte or CD34+ precursors are sequentially matured with proinflammatory cytokines, loaded with antigen, and injected (either IN or ID/SC). Liposomes or nanoparticles comprising monoclonal DC receptor-targeting antibody-antigen chimera (± adjuvant) can also be delivered to lymph nodes via IV routes. Within the lymph node, DCs present antigen to CD8+/CD4+ T-cells in the context of MHC Class I/II molecules, triggering antigen-specific CTLs. Natural DC subsets, such as mDCs and pDCs, can be targeted with DC targeting liposomes/nanoparticles, which in turn stimulate antigen-specific CD8+/CD4+ T-cell production. Cross-talk between DC-delivering mechanisms can induce other immune cells, such as NK cells. These effector populations migrate to the tumor bed, where they directly attack tumor cells. Multimodality optimization of DC immunotherapy involves preventing antigen-specific CTL exhaustion and depleting tumor-elaborated Treg and MDSCs. Anti-CTLA-4 and anti-PD-1 mAb are immunostimulatory therapies aimed at recovering T-cell cytotoxicity. A variety of agents, including IL-2, chemotherapy, and TKIs can mute Treg/MDSCs. COX-2 inhibitors, ATRA, and vitamin D3 can specifically target MDSCs, whereas anti-CD25 mAbs and denileukin diftitox target CD25 on Treg. Non-CD25-based alternatives, such as 1-MT, inhibit Treg-generated IDO.



Optimizing dendritic cell-based vaccination via multimodality approaches. Clinical trials utilizing the respective approach are listed, if applicable.
StrategyAgent/technique utilizedProposed advantage(s)Clinical trial(s) completed/under way, if applicable
“Next-generation” DC vaccinesPlasmacytoid DCIFN-α/β production, enhances cross-presentationMelanoma (NCT01690377)
CD141+/BDCA3+DC Langerhans cell DCImproves cross-presentationN/A
mRNA-electroporated DC encoding CD40L/ CD70/TLR4 (Trimix)Increases antigen-specificityMelanoma (NCT01456104NCT00700167, and NCT01189383)
Durable antitumor Th1 immunityMelanoma (NCT01066390
Muting immunosuppressionAnti-CD25 (basiliximab, daclizumab) mAbDeplete TregBrain (NCT00626483); Melanoma (NCT00847106); Ovarian (NCT01132014)
Denileukin diftitoxTarget CD25, deplete TregMelanoma (NCT00056134); Ovarian (NCT00703105); Solid (NCT00128622)
1-methyl-D-tryptophanInhibits indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenaseBreast (NCT01042535NCT01302821)
all-trans retinoic acidMDSC differentiation into non-suppressive cellsLung (NCT00617409)
COX-2 inhibitors (celecoxib, meloxicam)Inhibit CCL2, upregulate CXCL10Melanoma (NCT00197912); Head & Neck (NCT00589186); Brain (NCT01759810); Lung (NCT00442754NCT01782287); Breast (NCT01782274)
LenalidomideInhibit MDSCMyeloma (NCT00698776)
Anti-VEGFInhibit MDSCRenal (NCT00913913); Prostate (NCT00027599); Ovarian (NCT00683241 NCT01132014)
Targeting immune checkpoint pathwaysAnti-CTLA4Inhibit CTLA-4:B7Melanoma (NCT00090896)
Anti-PD-1Impair PD-1:CTL interactionRenal (NCT01441765); Prostate (NCT01420965); Hematological (NCT01096602,NCT01067287)
Cytokines and TLR agonistsIL-2Protect CTL effectors from tumor-mediated dysfunctionBrain (NCT01235845); Breast (NCT00197925), Colorectal (NCT00176761, NCT0001959); Lung (NCT00442754); Melanoma (NCT00197912NCT00338377NCT00910650,NCT00279058NCT00006113NCT00004025NCT01339663NCT00003229NCT00019214,NCT00704938); Renal (NCT00197860NCT00913913NCT00085436NCT00704938); Sarcoma (NCT00001566); Lymphoma (NCT00006434)
IFN-αInduce apoptosis of tumorMelanoma (NCT00278018NCT00610389), Renal (NCT00913913NCT00085436,NCT00610389)
IFN-γCytotoxic, polarize Th1
IL-7Maintenance of DCsMyeloma (NCT00616720)
IL-12Polarize Th1, anti-angiogenicPediatric Solid Tumors (NCT00923351)
Imiquimod (TLR7)Induced type 1-IFN by pDCBreast (NCT00622401); Brain (NCT01808820NCT01792505NCT01171469); Lung (NCT00442754); Ovarian (NCT00799110); Sarcoma (NCT01803152NCT01241162,NCT00944580)
Poly-I:C (TLR3)DC activation, Teff infiltrationBrain (NCT01204684NCT00766753); Melanoma (NCT01783431); Pancreatic (NCT01677962,NCT01410968); Solid (NCT01734564)
Resiquimod (TLR7/8) thymosin-α-1 (TLR9)Teff infiltration, inhibit Treg; Potentiate CTL responsesBrain (NCT01204684); Renal (NCT00197860
ChemotherapyCyclophosphamide ±fludarabineLymphodepleting, reboots immune systemSolid (NCT01697527); Brain (NCT00323115NCT02010606); Melanoma (NCT00338377,NCT00910650NCT01946373NCT00313508NCT00704938); Renal (NCT00704938,NCT00093522)
Metronomically dosed cyclophosphamideDepletes Treg/MDSC, potentiates Th1/Th17Head & Neck (NCT01149902); Lung (NCT01159288); Melanoma (NCT00197912,NCT00683670NCT00722098NCT00978913NCT00313235NCT01339663;NCT00610389), Mesothelioma (NCT01241682); Ovarian (NCT00683241NCT00478452); Prostate (NCT01339663); Renal (NCT00610389)
GemcitabineImproves cross-presentation, TeffinfiltrationPancreatic (NCT00547144); Sarcoma (NCT01803152)
RadiotherapyRadiotherapyEnhances tumor immunogenicity, releases TLR agonists, targets stromaBrain (NCT00323115NCT01213407NCT01567202); Breast (NCT00082641); Esophageal (NCT01691625); Melanoma (NCT00278018); Pancreatic (NCT00547144NCT00843830); Sarcoma (NCT00365872NCT01347034)
Targeted therapiesSunitinib; Dasatinib; TrastuzumabInhibits MDSC, depletes CTLA-4/PD-1; Potentiate CTLs, enhance ADCCRenal (NCT01582672NCT01582672); Melanoma (NCT01876212); Breast (NCT00088985,NCT00266110)




Logo of yjbm
. 2014 Dec; 87(4): 491–518.
Published online 2014 Dec 12.
PMCID: PMC4257036
Focus: Vaccines

Optimizing Dendritic Cell-Based Approaches for Cancer Immunotherapy

*To whom all correspondence should be addressed: Brian J. Czerniecki, MD PhD, Department of Surgery, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, 3400 Civic Center Drive, Philadelphia, PA 19104; Tele: 215-615-1696; Fax: 215-615-0555; Email: ude.nnepu.shpu@ikceinrezc.nairb.

Introduction

As professional antigen-presenting cells (APC), dendritic cells (DC) function at the interface of the innate and adaptive immune systems. DCs serve as sentinel members of the innate immune arm, responding to “danger” signals by elaborating protective cytokines (e.g., IL-6, IL-12). In their role as master APCs, DCs induce adaptive responses by processing and presenting antigens to naïve T-lymphocytes at lymphoid organs in the context of major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules []. Due to these bridging functions, significant effort has been invested in targeting DCs directly or indirectly for the induction of tumor-specific immune responses in cancer patients.
Following the initial promise of DC-based vaccines in lymphoma and melanoma patients in the 1990s [,], autologous DCs have been employed in immunotherapy for several tumor types, including prostate cancer (PC), malignant glioma, and renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with varying success []. FDA approval of sipuleucel-T — prostatic acid phosphatase GM-CSF fusion protein-pulsed blood DCs — for metastatic castration-resistant PC [] has energized efforts to replicate and improve upon the success of such DC-based strategies in other tumor types. However, clinically effective DC-based immunotherapy as monotherapy for a majority of tumors remains a distant goal.
In this review, we summarize the rationale for recruiting DCs in immunotherapy, discuss relevant DC immunobiology, critically evaluate DC-based vaccine design and clinical efficacy of DC vaccines in human trials, and explore multimodality strategies to optimize the benefit of current DC-based immunotherapy.

Rationale for DC Use in Immunotherapy

Effective APCs

DCs are “master” APCs. Their potency for inducing T-cell proliferation is 10 to 100 times that of B-cells or monocytes [,]. DCs sensitize antigen-specific responses in both CD4+ [] and CD8+ T-cells []. CD8+ T-cells differentiate into cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs) and contribute to direct tumoricidality. CD8+ T-cell memory is more effectively maintained when stimulated by DCs []. While CD8+ T-cells have historically been valued as the primary effectors of anticancer immunity, increasing evidence supports the importance of CD4+ T-cell help in potentiating CTL responses [], facilitating immunologic memory and displaying direct cytotoxicity of their own [].

Cross-Presentation

DCs induce CD8+ T-cell responses, in part, due to their ability to cross-present — re-route exogenous antigens, typically presented on MHC class II molecules, into pathways for class I presentation []. Although evidence initially suggested that certain activated human blood DC subsets (i.e., CD141+/BDCA3+) are specialized for cross-presentation [], emerging data indicate that all lymphoid organ-resident DCs (CD141+/BDCA3+, CD1c+/BDCA1+, or plasmacytoid) cross-present efficiently []. Two intracellular pathways are utilized for cross-presentation: a) cytosolic (proteasome-dependent), whereby internalized proteins escape intracellular trafficking and are transported to endoplasmic reticulum by TAP1/2 transporters for class I loading; and b) vacuolar (proteasome/TAP-independent), wherein exogenous antigens are degraded in endocytic compartments by lysosomal proteases, cathepsins, or IRAP, and loaded onto class I molecules []. Augmentation of cross-presentation is increasingly utilized in DC-based vaccine design [].

Impact on Humoral Immunity

The role of the humoral system in antitumor immunity is increasingly appreciated, and several mechanisms via which antibodies mediate these effects have been elucidated. These include interfering or altering transmembrane signaling, inducing antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, or participating in complement-mediated cytotoxicity []. DCs indirectly facilitate humoral immunity by activating follicular CD4+ T-helper (Th) cells, which contribute to germinal center formation and regulate differentiation of B-cells into plasma cells and memory B-cells []. DCs directly influence differentiation and survival of B-cells, generation of antibody-secreting plasma cells, and stimulation of memory B-cells via subset-specific cytokine production []. Moreover, using a non-degradative intracellular pathway via FcγRIIB, DCs directly present antigen to B-cell receptors, resulting in antibody production [,].
DCs can potentiate antitumor humoral immune effects. In a BALB neuT-transgenic murine model, vaccination with bone marrow-derived DCs modified by a recombinant adenovirus-expressing truncated neu oncoprotein (DCAd.Neu) induced potent serum anti-neu antibodies and IFN-γ secretion by CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells. More importantly, DCAd.Neu prevented autochthonous breast cancers and inhibited growth of transplantable neu-expressing breast cancers []. In a separate study, HER2-expressing recombinant adenoviral vaccination alone in the BALB neuT-transgenic model also induced anti-neu antibodies, which were both necessary and sufficient for antitumor protection. Antibody effectiveness was also subtype-dependent, with IgG2a being most effective [].

Induction of Natural Killer (NK) and NK T-Cell (NKT) Responses

DCs favorably condition the tumor microenvironment (TME) via their interactions with NK and NKT-cells. DCs attract NK cells to the TME by secreting CXCR3 ligands, thereby stimulating NK effector functions []. Once NKs are recruited, interactions between NKs and DCs reciprocally enhance antitumor immunity. NK cells can induce DC activation, facilitate DC maturation to a type 1-polarizing phenotype (DC1), and edit DCs by eliminating tolerogenic subtypes [].
While NKT-cells mediate direct tumor lysis, their antitumor effects depend in large part on their ability to activate NK cells and DCs []. Targeting NKT-DC interactions have clinical implications: Activating NKT cells with α-galactosylceramide-loaded DCs (with low-dose lenalidomide) resulted in clinical regression and broad immune activation in myeloma [].

Direct DC Tumoricidality

Evidence supports DCs’ capacity for direct antitumor cytotoxicity []. This is achieved when DCs take up apoptotic tumor cells and present tumor antigens to other effector elements, thereby eliciting a tumor-specific immune response.

DC Immunobiology

DC-based vaccines differ from conventional (peptide, protein, DNA) vaccines in that a dynamic component of the immune system is harnessed to affect immunization []. DCs are governed by a pre-programmed life cycle as well as a range of constitutive and inducible functions that have been exploited for vaccine development. This section briefly explores the immunobiology of DCs pertinent to their use in immunotherapy.

DC Activation and Function

DCs primarily exist in immature (non-activated) and mature (activated) states. Immature DCs (iDC) are responsible for capture, transport, and processing of antigens [] while awaiting infectious/inflammatory signals, which commences maturation. Upon maturation, DCs lose their phagocytic and antigen-processing capabilities [,] and upregulate chemokine receptors, allowing migration to sites of eventual activity []. The ability of DCs to induce T-cell responses is augmented in a number of ways: increased expression of surface MHC [,] and co-stimulatory [] molecules and elaboration of soluble factors that influence polarization of the ensuing immune response [,].

DC Subsets and Plasticity

Two major subsets of DCs are described: classical (cDC; myeloid or mDC) and plasmacytoid (pDC) DCs. cDCs have historically been distinguished from pDCs on the basis of CD11c expression [] and myeloid markers []. cDCs highly express class II molecules and are efficient at inducing T-cell proliferation []. Although cDCs are referred to as lymphoid-organ “resident” due to their frequent occurrence in the thymus, spleen, and lymph nodes, a subpopulation was discovered in circulating blood and are termed migratory DCs []. Migratory DCs are further subdivided on the basis of reciprocal CD141/BDCA3 and CD1c/BDCA1 expression []. CD1c+/BDCA1+ DCs are predominantly found in the blood compartment, are similar to murine CD11b+ DCs, and are potent activators of CD4+ T-cells []. Human CD141+/BDCA3+ DCs are similar to murine CD8α+ DCs in their ability to generate robust CD8+ T-cell responses and cross-present exogenous antigens on MHC class I [,].
pDCs differ from cDCs by virtue of CD303+ and CD11c- status, low class II expression, and relatively poor ability to stimulate T-cells []. Despite these shortcomings, pDCs’ ability to respond to viral infections, via increased Toll-like receptor (TLR)-7/-9 expression and vigorous IFN-α/β production [,], may be harnessed in DC vaccine design.
Classification schemes of DC lineage have proven remarkably complex to define. Early classification attempts based on surface marker expression or transcription factors assumed that myeloid- and lymphoid-derived progenitor populations developed into distinct DC subsets [-]. However, there is substantial plasticity in these populations; it is now clear that both myeloid- and lymphoid-derived progenitors can develop into cDC/mDC or pDC subsets via intermediary progenitors under the influence of Flt3 ligand [,,]. This plasticity has been exploited by various activation protocols in DC vaccine design [].

DC Activation via TLR Signaling

Although the innate immune system is considered more non-specific compared to the adaptive system, it possesses the ability to respond to countless microbial threats while discriminating them from self-antigens []. This was explained by the discovery of receptors such as TLRs on immune cells that recognized molecular patterns common to many pathogens, termed pathogen-associated molecular patterns []. Eleven TLRs with homology to invertebrate counterparts have been identified in humans []. Examples include TLR2 (ligand: lipoteichoic acid [LTA]); TLR3 (double-stranded RNA); TLR4 (lipopolysaccharide [LPS]); TLR7/8 (single-stranded RNA); and TLR9 (unmethylated CpG-containing DNA) []. TLRs initiate downstream molecular events by recruiting MyD88 and TRAF6, thereby inducing expression of cytokine genes relevant to inflammation via two disparate pathways: a) NF-κB and AP-1 (involving the canonical IκB-kinase complex [IKK-α, IKK-β, and IKK-γ]); and b) MAP kinases (including ERK, JNK, p38) [].
TLRs are found on various DC subsets and direct their respective immunogenic capacities. For instance, pDCs (expressing TLR7/9) and cDC/mDCs (TLR8) respond to certain infections but not others []. Furthermore, different signaling pathways are activated depending on the TLR(s) stimulated and adaptor proteins involved. For example, simultaneous activation of MyD88-dependent and MyD88-independent (TRIF-mediated) pathways synergizes to generate DC phenotypes that secrete IL-12 more potently than when either pathway is activated individually []. Finally, TLR-primed DCs induce antigen-specific high-avidity CD8+[,] and type 1-polarized CD4+ Th (Th1) responses [], providing a compelling rationale for TLR agonism in DC-based immunization.

DC1-Mediated Th1

The plasticity of DC lineage and influence of external signals impacts DC maturation to disparate phenotypes. In turn, these phenotypes polarize the immune response (i.e., induce diverse Th subsets) via cytokine elaboration []. The DC1 phenotype, so named because it induces CD4+Th1 immunity [], is the primary phenotype utilized in vaccination for several reasons. DC1-secreted IL-12p70 polarizes naïve CD4+ T-cells to IFN-γ-secreting Th1; IFN-γ is critically important for tumor rejection in a number of models []. Importantly, Th1-driven CTLs detect class I-tumor antigen complexes with higher affinity than Th2-driven counterparts []. Finally, Th1 subsets are instrumental in B-cell responses by inducing antibody class-switching and IgG production []. IL-12p70 contributes to host anti-tumor responses by promoting NK cell activation [] and displaying anti-angiogenic properties by hindering tumor neovascularization []. In our studies, CD8+T-cells could only recognize HLA-A2pos cancer cells if the sensitizing DCs secreted IL-12p70. Moreover, IL-12p70-sensitized T-cells recognized antigen at significantly lower concentrations during recall responses compared with non-IL-12p70-sensitized T-cells []. Taken together, incorporation of IL-12p70-producing DC1 in vaccine design appears warranted.

DC2-Mediated Th2

DCs that promote CD4+ Th type-2 (Th2) differentiation are referred to as DC2. Cytokines that favor production of Th2 subsets include IL-4 and anti-IFN-γ; Th2, in turn, produce IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10 []. Th2, primarily involved in promoting allergic reactions, defending against parasitic infection, and inducing B-cell differentiation, are considered less effective than their Th1 counterparts in combating cancer. While earlier reports posited an antitumor effect for Th2 [], more recent evidence suggests that Th2 may be pro-tumorigenic. In a murine mammary carcinoma model, DC2-derived Th2 facilitated tumor development by generation of IL-4 and IL-13 []. In another study, IL-4-expressing Th2 promoted pulmonary metastasis of mammary carcinoma by enhancing TGF-β and EGF production by tumor-associated macrophages []. These data have engendered a bias against the use of DC2 in vaccine design.

DC17-Mediated Th17

DCs conditioned to drive Th17 differentiation are termed DC17. DC17s are characterized by IL-23, IL-1β, IL-6, and TGF-β production, although controversy exists regarding which of these is truly necessary for Th17 induction [,]. Interestingly, Th1-favoring IFN- γ and IL-4 inhibit IL-23-dependent Th17 production []. Our group has previously demonstrated that DC activation with single TLR ligands (LTA, LPS, or R848) can polarize Th17 responses compared with two signals required for DC1 activation []. Conversely, our collaborators utilize a combination of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and LTA to promote Th17 differentiation [].
The anticancer role of Th17 cells, characterized by IL-17, IL-21 and IL-22 secretion, remains controversial [,]. Initially, Th17 cells were considered protumorigenic due to increased IL-17 expression/function in several tumors []. More recently, however, studies have demonstrated an antitumor role for Th17 cells. In murine B16 melanoma, adoptive transfer of Th17 (vs. Th1 or non-polarized Th0) was most effective at inducing tumor regression. Intriguingly, Th17-mediated effects were dependent on IFN-γ production, and IFN-γ neutralization abrogated tumor rejection []. Indeed, IL-17 synergizes with IFN-γ to induce CXCL9/10 secretion by tumor cells, attracting effector T-cells (Teff) []. Widespread utilization of DC17 in cancer immunotherapy will depend on continued understanding of Th17 immunobiology and its interplay with Th1 immunity.

DC-Based Vaccine Design Strategies

Given the diverse anticancer armamentarium offered by DC immunobiology, an intense search for the optimal vaccine construction strategy has emerged in recent years. Two strategies (Figure 1) are widely accepted: a) direct targeting of antigens to DC receptors in vivo; and b)ex vivo-generated antigen-loaded DCs.
Figure 1
Global view of a multimodality approach to optimizing DC immunotherapy. Antigen-specific T-cell responses can be induced by traditional ex vivo-manipulated DCs or DC receptor targeting in vivo. In ex vivo manipulation, monocyte or CD34+ precursors are ...

DC-Targeting In Vivo

In this approach, chimeric antigen-antibody complexes targeted to DC surface molecules are internalized into endosomic compartments for MHC loading and stimulation of T-cell responses []. While a comprehensive review of DC receptors is presented elsewhere [,], a discussion of the most promising molecules follows.
The most comprehensively characterized DC receptor is DEC-205 — a multi-lectin receptor mediating ligand binding and internalization []. Antigens complexed with anti-DEC-205 monoclonal antibodies (mAb) have shown promise in preclinical studies [-]; HIVgag-DEC-205-targeting vaccine in primates generated robust Th1 immunity in a prime-boost model []. In murine models, conjugation of anti-DEC-205 mAb to TRP-2 [] or survivin [] generated antigen-specific immunity and tumor regression. Interestingly, targeting self-antigens to DEC-205 induces tolerance — conjugation of proteolipid protein to anti-DEC-205 mAb tolerized T-cells and reduced IL-17 secretion by Th17 [].
Another promising target is the mannose receptor (MR). Antigen mannosylation enhances uptake by APCs, particularly DCs, with subsequent presentation on class I/II molecules []. Interestingly, chemical modification of the mannan conjugate can skew the ensuing immune response; oxidized mannan stimulates Th1 immunity, whereas reduced mannan favors predominantly Th2 responses []. Targeting MR/DEC-205 holds clinical promise. Antibody-targeted NY-ESO-1 to MR/DEC-205 elicited human CD8+ and CD4+ T-cell immunity with broad antigen specificity; whereas non-targeted and mAb-targeted NY-ESO-1 similarly activated CD4+ T cells, cross-presentation to CD8+ T-cells was efficiently induced only by receptor-targeted antigen []. Accordingly, phase I/II clinical trials involving β-hCG-MR mAb conjugates (CDX-1307) and NY-ESO-1-DEC-205 (CDX-1401) have been initiated [,]. In its first in-human application, CDX-1401 administered to 45 patients with treatment-refractory advanced malignancy generated potent anti-NY-ESO-1 immunity, as well as encouraging clinical results [].
DC-SIGN is a membrane lectin with significant implications for antigen targeting. Via its high-affinity interactions with ICAM-2/ICAM-3, DC-SIGN mediates DC signaling and trafficking []. DC-SIGN-ligand complexes are channeled into late endosomes and presented on class II molecules, generating robust CD4+ immunity []. KLH-DC-SIGN mAb potentiated naïve T-cell responses and inhibited tumor growth in a murine model []. Lastly, DCIR is a versatile tyrosine-based receptor with immunomodulatory properties. Targeting DCIR not only activates T-cell responses, but also inhibits TLR8- (IL-12, TNF-α) and TLR9- (IFN-α) related signaling []. Antigens targeted to anti-DCIR mAb (e.g., influenza matrix protein, MART-1) potently stimulated CD8+ T-cell responses in vitro and in vivo [].
A few salient features of in vivo DC-targeting deserve mention. First, antigen must be delivered to mature/activated DCs, since antigen presentation by immature DCs induces tolerance rather than immunity []. Vaccine constructs must rely on the retained ability of mature DCs to present antigen taken up via endocytic receptors []. Functionally, this is achieved by accompanying antigen-mAb conjugates with molecular adjuvants (e.g., anti-CD40 mAb, poly-I:C, CpG) []. Second, targeting receptors on distinct DC subsets may bias the immunologic outcome. CD8α+ DCs targeted using anti-DEC-205-ovalbumin (OVA) favored the generation of CD8+ immunity, whereas CD8α- DCs targeted using anti-DCIR-OVA or anti-Dectin-1-OVA more efficiently induced CD4+ immunity []. Third, engaging different DC receptors may deliver distinct signals to the same DC, polarizing their function accordingly. Targeting DC-ASGPR (without adjuvant) generated IL-10-secreting regulatory T-cells, whereas targeting DCs with anti-LOX1 mAb resulted in Th1 polarization []. Fourth, the choice of adjuvant may be critical in skewing immune responses to a desired phenotype. Potent Th1 responses were induced by anti-Clec9A-OVA mAb delivered to CD8α+ DCs in the presence of poly-I:C (TLR3 agonist). When curdlan (β-glucan) was used as adjuvant, immunization with anti-Clec9A induced Th17 responses []. Finally, the ubiquitous expression of some molecules (e.g., DEC-205, MR) on non-DC APCs (monocytes, B-cells) may dissipate the antigen-targeting efficiency of this approach. Given these complexities, and the uncertainty associated with translating preclinical evidence into clinical success, moving in vivo DC-targeting to human trials requires considerable work yet.

Ex Vivo-Generated Antigen-Loaded DCs

Pioneering studies describing the ability to culture murine DCs ex vivo from bone marrow precursors galvanized DC vaccine development in the 1990s []. Human applications followed soon thereafter. Human DCs could be generated from peripheral blood-derived monocytes or CD34+ hematopoietic progenitors []. Ex vivo-manipulated autologous DCs could be expanded, loaded with antigen, and administered back to patients to generate antitumor immunity []. This approach had two ostensible advantages: a) bypassing endogenous DC dysfunction in cancer-bearing patients; and b) streamlining immune responses to recognize and eliminate tumor cells in an antigen-specific fashion.
Although a majority of clinical trials have utilized ex vivo-generated DC vaccines, several controversies linger. First, the maturation state of DCs has been a matter of debate. Despite moderate clinical benefit in trials using IL-4-immature DCs [], a meta-analysis revealed a significant association between DC maturation and improved clinical responses in PC []. These findings have been reproduced in melanoma [] and glioblastoma []. These disparities in clinical efficacy reflect lessons learned in the laboratory. By virtue of their low co-stimulatory and class II molecule expression (and intermediate class I expression), iDCs induce suboptimal T-cell priming and generate T-cell tolerance. Fully activated DCs (e.g., matured with TLR agonists) can abrogate such tolerance []. Furthermore, maturation can be performed rapidly in 2 to 3 day protocols (versus ≥1 week) []. These “rapid-activation” systems obviate longer culture times without compromising DC functionality [].
Second, the optimal DC phenotype, and the maturation strategy utilized therein, remains contentious. It is increasingly recognized that abundant production of IL-12p70 during DC maturation ex vivo, as well as “burst” secretion during DC-activated Th interaction in vivo (via CD40-CD40L in lymphoid organs), is critical for the induction of CTL responses [,] Moreover, DC1-derived IL-12p70 drives Th1-polarized immunity and is predictive of favorable outcomes in melanoma [] and glioblastoma []. In addition to IL-12p70 elaboration, other desirable functions of immunogenic DCs include non-exhaustive capacity, expression of chemokines enhancing TME infiltration of Teff (e.g., CXCL9/10), low IL-10 secretion following restimulation with CD40L, and enhanced migratory ability to lymph nodes. Several cytokine cocktails have been proposed to achieve optimal DC characteristics. The “gold-standard” system in clinical trials comprises TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and PGE2 [,]. Limitations of this technique (i.e., low IL-12p70 “burst,” Treg chemoattraction/expansion, increased expression of pro-tolerogenic indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase []) prompted a search for viable alternatives. Combinations of IFN-α, IL-1β, TNF-α, IFN-γ, and poly-I:C yielded non-exhaustive DCs with improved IL-12p70 “burst” in vivo [], while IL-1β, TNF-α, IFN-γ, low-dose PGE2, and R848 (TLR7/8 agonist) enhanced lymph node homing []. Our group [], as well as others [], utilizes a streamlined recipe of IFN-γ and LPS to activate DCs. LPS-induced TLR4 agonism results in activation of highly immunogenic DCs [] and yield an IFN-producing tumor-“killing” phenotype []. Finally, compared with four other cytokine cocktails, IFN-γ/LPS generated the highest relative IL-12:IL-10 ratio and elicited the strongest antigen-specific CTL response [].
Third, the ideal strategy for DC antigen-loading is not universally agreed upon. The most common approach has been loading with tumor-associated peptides or whole recombinant tumor proteins []. While these non-mutated self-antigens may break self-tolerance at the cellular level, they rarely do so at the host level [], accounting for disappointing clinical results. Putative reasons for this phenomenon include negative selection of high-avidity clones with ensuing self-tolerance to low-avidity clones [] and maintenance of host level self-tolerance via pre-programmed immunosuppressive elements (e.g., Treg) []. Strategies have been proposed to overcome these pitfalls: a) co-administration of TLR agonists, as discussed earlier []; b) silencing of antigen presentation “attenuators” (e.g., SOCS1) may enhance in vivo DC function by augmenting immunogenicity []; c) using homologous xenogeneic (e.g., murine) antigens to break self-tolerance []; and d) engineering DCs loaded with mutated neo-antigens from patient-specific tumors, which may activate a T-cell repertoire without pre-programmed Treg []. Other modalities of DC loading (engineered fusion proteins, autologous/allogeneic tumor cells, tumor cell-lysate, DC-tumor hybrids, and DNA- or mRNA-transfected) have emerged and are reviewed elsewhere [].
Fourth, the optimal route for DC administration remains controversial. Historically, with intradermal/subcutaneous injection techniques, DC trafficking to regional lymph nodes was considered critically important to their function. Indeed, maturation cocktails (e.g., PGE2-containing) were designed to optimize trafficking ability []. The growing popularity of IFN-γ/LPS maturation regimens, with their incident lack of CCR7/CXCR-4 (“trafficking” chemokines) expression [], dictated a search for alternative techniques to overcome this limitation. Ultrasound-guided intranodal injection, which co-localizes DC1-derived IL-12p70 “burst” with the anatomic site of T-cell sensitization, has emerged as a feasible solution [].
Finally, the opportunity for DC vaccination in early disease settings remains underexplored, with most trials focusing on locally advanced/metastatic settings []. Immunization in early disease or reduced-tumor states may circumvent tumor- and patient-induced immune dysfunction inherent in advanced disease settings []. Indeed, our group has conducted phase I/II neoadjuvant HER2/neu-pulsed autologous DC1 trials in early (Stage I) HER2pos-invasive breast cancer and HER2pos-ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) with encouraging results. In the initial phase I study, 5/27 (18.5 percent) subjects had no evidence of residual DCIS (complete response [CR]) at surgery, with a substantial loss of target antigen in the remainder of patients []. In the subsequent phase I/II study, nearly 25 percent of HER2pos-DCIS patients have achieved CR [unpublished results]. In another study, a Wilms’ tumor-1 (WT1) mRNA-electroporated DC vaccine was effective in acute myeloid leukemia patients with minimal residual disease, but not in those with relapsed or progressive disease []. Finally, ongoing trials in resected glioma (NCT00045968) and RCC (NCT01582672) are exploiting reduced-tumor states to evaluate DC vaccine efficacy [].

Clinical Efficacy of DC-Based Immunotherapy

As mentioned earlier, DC-based immunotherapy has produced inconsistent clinical results. In this section, the clinical efficacy of “traditional” ex vivo antigen-loaded DC immunotherapy is summarized.
In a pilot study, four B-cell lymphoma patients administered autologous idiotype-specific DCs demonstrated promising clinical responses []. Soon thereafter, a randomized phase III trial comparing autologous DC vaccination with dacarbazine as first-line therapy for advanced melanoma was initiated but closed prematurely due to the lack of meaningful objective response rates (ORR) on interim analysis []. Its failure was attributed to several factors, including suboptimal DC maturation, inadequate dosage, and subcutaneous route of injection. Despite this setback, DC-based approaches have been adopted for a wide range of tumor types, including PC, lung cancer, melanoma, RCC, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, breast cancer, and malignant glioma (Table 1Supplement). Encouragingly, the FDA recently approved sipuleucel-T — autologous APCs (including DCs) activated with prostatic acid phosphatase-GM-CSF fusion protein — for metastatic castration-resistant PC. In two placebo-controlled randomized trials, sipuleucel-T prolonged overall survival (OS) by nearly four months compared with placebo, with a 22 percent relative mortality risk reduction [,].
Table 1
Number of clinical trials employing DC immunotherapy, organized by involved organ and phase of development. Data was obtained using the search terms “dendritic cells” and “cancer” onwww.clinicaltrials.gov.
Clinical experience with DC-based vaccination underscores a few distinct advantages. First, DC immunotherapy is safe; injection site reaction, fever, and fatigue are the most commonly reported adverse effects in phase I trials; systemic grade 3-4 toxicity is rare []. Additionally, concerns regarding immunotherapy-induced autoimmunity appear less worrisome for DC-based approaches compared with mAb (e.g., anti-CTLA-4) or cytokine (e.g., IL-2) therapies [,]. Moreover, DC therapies are expected to adequately preserve quality of life in immunized patients []. Finally, regardless of the immune monitoring technique (ELISPOT, tetramer assays, skin biopsy of delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions), a majority of DC-based trials indicate that this approach is highly immunogenic, even in advanced malignancy []. In metastatic PC and RCC, antigen-specific immunity was induced in 77 percent and 61 percent of patients, respectively []. DCs’ immunogenicity in early disease settings is more readily discernible. Our phase I/II HER2-pulsed DC1 trial demonstrated durable (up to 48 months post-immunization) anti-HER2 Th1 immunity in a majority of HER2pos-DCIS patients [].
While tolerable and immunogenic, DC-based approaches have been criticized for their disappointing ORRs (partial/complete response by WHO/RECIST criteria) []; a recent systematic review concluded that ORR in melanoma, PC, glioma, and RCC were 8.5 percent, 7.1 percent, 15.6 percent, and 11.5 percent, respectively []. A more longitudinal endpoint of treatment efficacy (e.g., OS) may be more appropriate than measuring short-term tumor regression. This paradigm is exemplified by the IMPACT trial, wherein a survival benefit for sipuleucel-T was observed over placebo despite its lack of improvement in time to biochemical failure or progression-free survival []. OS is increasingly utilized as an end-point in newer DC-based vaccine trials (Supplement).
This discordance between robust immunogenicity, poor ORR, and measurable survival benefit seen with DC-based approaches can be explained by the fact that immune potentiation against advanced cancer is an indolent, not immediate, process. Furthermore, an initial increase in radiographic tumor burden, which would be considered progressive disease by RECIST, often reflects a protective vaccine-induced peritumoral immune infiltrate []. As such, tumor regression following immunotherapy has been documented even after initial progression or appearance of new lesions []. In an effort to capture these atypical response patterns, novel surrogates for vaccine-induced efficacy were proposed — so-called immune-related response criteria (IRRC). IRRC includes index as well as new lesion(s) in measuring tumor burden and emphasizes the need for longitudinal surveillance to confirm progression []. Adoption of IRRC-defined endpoints in future clinical trials may uncover the true merit of DC-based vaccination.

Optimizing DC-Based Approaches

The maximal benefit of DC-based immunotherapy may be realized in combinatorial approaches with other anticancer therapies that synergistically enhance DC function. This section will illustrate the rationale for such approaches (Table 2Figure 1).
Table 2
Optimizing dendritic cell-based vaccination via multimodality approaches. Clinical trials utilizing the respective approach are listed, if applicable.

“Next Generation” DCs

Our growing understanding of DC biology sheds light on strategies to optimize vaccine efficacy. First, exploiting the diversity of DC lineage may prove advantageous. For instance, although pDCs have a proclivity toward Th2 polarization, their ability to produce IFN-α/β during viral infection can activate other DCs, augment T-cell cross-priming, and generate potent CTL responses []. CD141+/BDCA3+ DCs, when activated by poly-I:C, produce abundant amounts of IL-12p70 and IFN-β, excel at antigen cross-presentation, and result in stronger Th1 induction than CD1c+ DCs []. Second, manipulating ex vivo culture conditions may generate more immunogenic DCs. Langerhans cell-type DCs — derived from CD34+progenitors or IL-15-monocytes [] — are more efficient at priming antigen-specific CTLs than GM-CSF/IL-4-DCs []. Trials employing Langerhans-type DCs are under way in melanoma []. Third, modified expression of co-stimulatory molecules could enhance DC potency. CD40L overexpression in murine DCs via mRNA-electroporation enhanced B7/IL-12p70 production, critical for Th1 immunity. Moreover, mRNA-electroporated DCs encoding CD40L, CD70, and TLR4 generated durable tumor responses in chemorefractory metastatic melanoma [].

Muting Immunosuppressive Phenotypes

Tumors create immunosuppressive networks (Treg, MDSCs) that mediate escape from immune surveillance. Two broad strategies to mute Treg/MDSCs are plausible and may improve DC potency. First, DCs can be harnessed to directly target immunosuppressive elements. We recently demonstrated that TLR4-activated DC1 not only inhibits Treg effects but also converts regulatory cells into IFN-γ-secreting Th1 []. Alternatively, loading DCs with immunogenic FoxP3 epitopes may generate FoxP3-specific CTLs capable of eliminating Treg. Melanoma-bearing mice vaccinated with FoxP3 mRNA-transfected DCs reduced intratumoral FoxP3+Treg by 85 percent and augmented TRP2-specific CTL responses following co-vaccination with TRP2-DCs []. While promising, such approaches must consider the risk of depleting Treg systemically, which may promote irreversible autoimmunity.
Second, DCs can be synergized with several Treg/MDSC-targeting therapies. Anti-CD25 mAb (daclizumab, basiliximab), targeting IL-2 receptor α-chains, transiently deplete Treg and augment tumor rejection in murine models. In metastatic melanoma, addition of daclizumab to tumor antigen/KLH-pulsed DCs depleted Treg, but undesirably suppressed tumor-specific CD25+ effectors. No differences in progression-free survival were observed between daclizumab-treated or untreated groups []. A recombinant IL-2-diphtheria toxin conjugate — denileukin diftitox — is another CD25-targeting strategy demonstrating Treg depletion and persistent antigen-specific CTL responses in RCC [] and CEA-overexpressing malignancies []. More recent evidence, however, suggests that denileukin paradoxically induces a tolerogenic DC phenotype, promotes survival of non-activated Treg [], and depletes tumoricidal NK cells []. To overcome these limitations, a non-CD25-based alternative — 1-methyl-D-tryptophan — which inhibits indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase is currently being trialed in combination with DC vaccines [].
The inhibition of Treg functional activity may complement DC vaccination. In a murine model of graft-versus-host disease, mAbs targeting OX40 or GITR (TNF family receptors influencing Treg function) abrogated Treg-mediated suppression []. Anti-GITR mAb in conjunction with HER2/neu-expressing DC vaccines displayed potent anti-tumor immunity in a tolerogenic murine model []. A synthetic peptide inhibiting nuclear translocation of FoxP3 protected mice undergoing CD8+ peptide immunization against tumor implantation []. Finally, disrupting Treg trafficking to tumors/lymph nodes may boost DC function at these sites. CCR4 antagonists, which block CCL22/CCL17-mediated Treg recruitment, induced antigen-specific CTLs when combined with peptide vaccination in murine models [].
MDSCs have emerged as key tumor-induced suppressors of T-cell responses. Owing to evidence that MDSCs may directly impair DC vaccine quality [], concomitantly targeting MDSCs may be warranted. Three strategies exist: a) promoting MDSC differentiation into non-suppressive cells (ATRA, vitamin D3); b) depleting MDSC levels (sunitinib, gemcitabine, 5-FU), or c) inhibiting MDSC function (PDE-5 inhibitors, cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors) []. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors favorably predispose the TME for DC immunotherapy by diminishing the MDSC-attracting chemokine CCL2 while upregulating CXCL10 []. Other MDSC-targeted interventions that could be used with DC vaccines include VEGF inhibitors (bevacizumab), lenalidomide, and tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI; e.g., sunitinib, vemurafenib) [].

Targeting Immune Checkpoint Pathways

CTLA-4 and PD-1 are the best understood immune checkpoint receptors that negatively regulate activated CTL function, resulting in an “exhausted” T-cell phenotype. Monoclonal antibodies targeting CTLA-4/PD-1 are immunostimulatory therapies aimed at recovering T-cell cytotoxicity []. Anti-CTLA-4 is tumor non-specific, preventing downregulation of CTL function by inhibiting CTLA-4:B7 interaction []. Preliminary clinical evidence suggests that combination of DC immunotherapy and anti-CTLA-4 may be synergistic in their benefit. In advanced melanoma patients, co-administration of MART1-pulsed DCs and anti-CTLA-4 mAb (tremelimumab) yielded durable antitumor responses at a higher rate than with either agent alone []. The non-specific mechanism of CTLA-4 blockade, however, manifests as dose-limiting toxicity in many patients. Conversely, anti-PD-1 antibodies, which impair the inhibitory CTL:PD-1 ligand interaction on tumors, potentiate tumor-specific immunity and demonstrate a more favorable toxicity profile []. Administration of anti-PD-1 antibody (pidilizumab) enhanced activated-CTL responses following stimulation with an autologous myeloma-DC fusion vaccine []. Pidilizumab is currently being investigated in combination with DC vaccination in hematologic, renal, and prostate malignancies [].

Cytokines and TLR Agonists

Cytokines and TLR agonists are attractive adjuncts for DC vaccines due to their critical role in regulating lymphocyte homeostasis and potentiating CTL function. Concomitant administration of systemic IL-2 with DCs proved effective in preclinical studies. In a murine sarcoma model, IL-2 potentiated antitumor effects of tumor lysate-pulsed DCs in vivo and induced protective immunity to lethal tumor challenge; this combination also mediated regression of established pulmonary metastases [], suggesting its applicability in advanced malignancy. In advanced melanoma patients, however, tumor lysate-pulsed DCs plus IL-2, albeit well tolerated and variably immunogenic, failed to induce meaningful clinical responses [,]. Despite these results, several trials employing adjunctive cytokine therapy (GM-CSF, IL-2, IFN-γ, pegylated-IFN-α, IL-12) with DC vaccination are under way [].
Topical/intra-lesional administration of TLR agonists could be explored as adjuncts to DC immunotherapy. Imiquimod (TLR7/8 agonist) stimulates type-1 IFN production by tumor-resident pDCs, engaging them in an inflammatory milieu and improving tumoricidality []. Synthetic CpG-containing oligodeoxynucleotides induce innate and adaptive immune responses by triggering TLR9 expressed by pDCs and B-cells. In a phase I trial, intra-lesional PF-3512676 demonstrated clinical activity in basal cell carcinoma and subcutaneous melanoma metastasis []. The combination of IFN-α and poly-I:C, used in a tissue explant culture system in colorectal tumors, upregulated Teff-attracting chemokines CXCL10 and CCL5 []. Several clinical trials utilizing novel TLR agonists (e.g., picibanil [TLR4], resiquimod [TLR7/8], thymosin-α-1 [TLR9]) are currently under way [].

Chemotherapy

The traditional view of chemotherapy as immunosuppressive has been challenged, prompting a re-evaluation of its utility as an adjunct to immunotherapy. In recent years, successful “chemoimmunotherapy” combinations have emerged []. Such clinical effects may be explained by the mechanistic synergism between these two modalities, the heightened sensitization of tumor cells to chemotherapy during vaccination-invoked immune siege [] or provocation of immune responses induced by chemotherapy-induced cell death []. The impact of chemotherapeutic agents on antitumor immunity varies by their unique immunologic repercussions. Three effects are recognized: a) increasing Teff stimulation (e.g., cyclophosphamide, paclitaxel); b) enhancing tumor immunogenicity (e.g., doxorubicin, cisplatin, 5-FU); and c) decreasing tumor-induced immunosuppression (e.g., gemcitabine, cyclophosphamide, paclitaxel/carboplatin) []. Ultimately, chemotherapy-specific immune effects should guide selection of optimal agent(s) for chemoimmunotherapy.
In this regard, a few chemotherapeutic agents/regimens deserve mention. Lymphodepleting regimens (cyclophosphamide or temozolomide±fludarabine) can reboot the immune system by eliminating immunosuppressive elements and creating an immunostimulatory cytokine (e.g., IL-7, IL-15) environment []. This prompts an immune-recovery state ideal for DC vaccination []. Metronomically dosed cyclophosphamide inhibits angiogenesis, depletes Treg/MDSC populations, increases tumor cell permeability to CTL-derived cytolytic factors, and potentiates antitumor Th1/Th17 responses []. Finally, gemcitabine: a) augments antitumor immunity by increasing tumor antigen cross-presentation, T-lymphocyte expansion, and Teff infiltration []; b) selectively induces MDSC apoptosis in several preclinical models, without detrimental effects on T-, B-, or NK-cells []; and c) selectively inhibits splenic MDSCs and augmentsin vitro expansion of antigen-specific splenic T-cells in 4T1 mammary carcinoma-bearing BALB/c mice [].
While the immune benefits of various chemotherapeutic agents are increasingly recognized, optimal sequencing of chemoimmunotherapy is yet to be conclusively established. Although patients heavily pretreated with chemotherapy are less responsive to subsequent immune manipulations [], less aggressive regimens administered prior to immunization may potentiate antitumor immunity. Dacarbazine treatment before peptide vaccination broadened the T-cell receptor diversity of melan-A-specific CTL clones in melanoma patients, with a trend toward longer survival []. Conversely, DC vaccination may effectively prime the immune system before cytotoxic insult. Indeed, patients with advanced small cell lung cancer demonstrated notable clinical responses to second-line chemotherapy following vaccination with DCs transduced with adenoviral-delivered wild-type p53 []. To confound matters, concurrentchemotherapy and DC vaccination may be a viable strategy in certain tumor types; a majority of colon cancer patients concomitantly receiving adjuvant oxaliplatin/capecitabine and KLH/CEA-pulsed DCs demonstrated CEA-specific T-cell responses []. Several trials attempting to elucidate the optimal dosing/timing of chemoimmunotherapy are under way [,].

Radiotherapy

There has been a recent paradigm shift from viewing radiotherapy as merely cytoreductive to appreciating its varied immunomodulatory effects. While these effects are quite complex [], a simplified rationale for combining DC immunotherapy and radiotherapy follows. Irradiation of tumor cells enhances their immunogenicity via upregulating class I molecules (e.g., in melanoma []) or tumor-associated antigen expression (e.g., CEA on gastric adenocarcinoma cells []). Radiation-induced release of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β) or endogenous TLR agonists (HMGB1 [TLR4]) activate DCs and prime antigen-specific T-cell responses []. Moreover, radiation exposure alters the TME favorably, selectively inhibiting Treg [] and inducing CTL-mediated targeting of tumor stroma []. In light of this dynamic interplay between irradiated tumor, DCs, and effector/suppressive immune fractions, combinatorial approaches of DC vaccination with radiotherapy are currently being explored in several tumor types [].

Targeted Therapies

Targeted molecular therapies can be utilized in combination with DC immunotherapy. A promising agent is sunitinib, a TKI targeting c-KIT, VEGFR, PDGFR, and Flt-3, primarily applied in GIST/RCC patients []. In preclinical models, sunitinib effectively decreases TME accumulation of MDSC, restores Th1/CTL functionality, inhibits PD-1L expression on pDCs/MDSCs, depletes CTLA-4/PD-1 expression on activated-CTLs, and mutes the expression of inhibitory IL-10, TGF-β, and FoxP3 from tumor-infiltrating leukocytes [,]. Likewise, the immune effects of vemurafenib, a BRAFV600E-targeting TKI in melanoma, are increasingly appreciated. In conjunction with its inhibitory effects on Treg and MDSCs, vemurafenib reduces tumor-induced CCL2 expression and enhances TME Teffinfiltration []. Interestingly, vemurafenib reversed BRAFV600E melanoma-induced DC dysfunction without deleterious effects on DC viability or ability to prime T-cell responses, making it an exciting candidate for combination immunotherapy [,]. Indeed, we are actively examining the efficacy of this combination in a murine model of BRAFV600E/PTEN-/-melanoma.

Conclusions and Outlook

Realistically, tangible benefits with DC immunotherapy will likely be realized by employing a multifaceted strategy of DC delivery (e.g., uniting in vivo DC-targeting and ex vivo-manipulated DCs in individual trials), rationally combining multivalent DC-based vaccines with established anticancer agents, and utilizing these multimodality approaches in early disease or reduced-tumor settings. Furthermore, the repeatedly proven safety of DC vaccination places the onus on regulatory agencies to allow investigators to bypass resource-intensive phase I testing and focus the majority of efforts in evaluating DCs’ therapeutic efficacy. These developments might expedite the availability of clinically effective DC approaches for cancer immunotherapy.

Supplement

Supplement:
Clinical trials employing dendritic cell-based immunization approaches. Trials are grouped by phase of development (I-III) and malignancy type. Trial endpoints are indicated (i.e., safety, immunogenicity, tumor/disease response, and overall survival). Trials that were withdrawn or terminated were excluded from this list. Data was obtained using the search terms “dendritic cells” and “cancer” on www.clinicaltrials.gov.

Glossary

ILinterleukin
GM-CSFgranulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor
CDcluster of differentiation
TAPtransporter associated with antigen processing
IRAPinsulin-regulated aminopeptidase
FcγRIIBFc gamma receptor IIB
DNAdeoxyribonucleic acid
IFNinterferon
RNAribonucleic acid
HLAhuman leukocyte antigen
CpGcytosine-phosphate-guanine
TGF-βtransforming growth factor- β
EGFepidermal growth factor
CXCLC-X-C chemokine ligand
KLHkeyhole limpet hemocyanin
TNFtumor necrosis factor
PGE2Prostaglandin E2
MYD88myeloid differentiation primary response gene-88
SOCS1suppressor of cytokine signaling-1
HER2human epidermal growth factor receptor-2
ELISPOTenzyme-linked immunospot assay
WHOWorld Health Organization
RECISTResponse Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors
FoxP3Forkhead box P3
MDSCmyeloid-derived suppressor cells
ATRAall trans-retinoic acid
PD-1programmed death-1
HMGB1high mobility group box-1
GISTGastrointestinal Stromal Tumor
c-KITmast/stem cell growth factor receptor
VEGFRvascular endothelial growth factor receptor
PDGFRplatelet-derived growth factor receptor
Flt-3fms-related tyrosine kinase-3
BRAFv-Raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog-B

Notes

Author contributions

Conception/design: JD, BJC; Manuscript preparation: JD, JHT, LL, JAC, RER, SX; Tables/Figures: JD, LL; Critical reading/revision: All authors.

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  • Poschke I, Mao Y, Adamson L, Salazar-Onfray F, Masucci G, Kiessling R. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells impair the quality of dendritic cell vaccines. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2012;61(6):827–838. [PubMed]
  • Najjar YG, Finke JH. Clinical perspectives on targeting of myeloid derived suppressor cells in the treatment of cancer. Front Oncol. 2013;3:49. [PMC free article][PubMed]
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  • Ribas A, Comin-Anduix B, Chmielowski B, Jalil J, de la Rocha P, McCannel TA. Dendritic cell vaccination combined with CTLA4 blockade in patients with metastatic melanoma. Clin Cancer Res. 2009;15(19):6267–6276. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Hamid O, Robert C, Daud A, Hodi FS, Hwu WJ, Kefford R. et al. Safety and tumor responses with lambrolizumab (anti-PD-1) in melanoma. N Engl J Med.2013;369(2):134–144. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Rosenblatt J, Glotzbecker B, Mills H, Vasir B, Tzachanis D, Levine JD. et al. PD-1 blockade by CT-011, anti-PD-1 antibody, enhances ex vivo T-cell responses to autologous dendritic cell/myeloma fusion vaccine. J Immunother. 2011;34(5):409–418. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Shimizu K, Fields RC, Giedlin M, Mule JJ. Systemic administration of interleukin 2 enhances the therapeutic efficacy of dendritic cell-based tumor vaccines. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1999;96(5):2268–2273. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Escobar A, Lopez M, Serrano A, Ramirez M, Perez C, Aguirre A. et al. Dendritic cell immunizations alone or combined with low doses of interleukin-2 induce specific immune responses in melanoma patients. Clin Exp Immunol. 2005;142(3):555–568.[PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Redman BG, Chang AE, Whitfield J, Esper J, Jiang G, Braun T. et al. Phase Ib trial assessing autologous, tumor-pulsed dendritic cells as a vaccine administered with or without IL-2 in patients with metastatic melanoma. J Immunother. 2008;31(6):591–598. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Miller RL, Gerster JF, Owens ML, Slade HB, Tomai MA. Imiquimod applied topically: a novel immune response modifier and new class of drug. Int J Immunopharmacol. 1999;21(1):1–14. [PubMed]
  • Hofmann MA, Kors C, Audring H, Walden P, Sterry W, Trefzer U. Phase 1 evaluation of intralesionally injected TLR9-agonist PF-3512676 in patients with basal cell carcinoma or metastatic melanoma. J Immunother. 2008;31(5):520–527.[PubMed]
  • Muthuswamy R, Berk E, Junecko BF, Zeh HJ, Zureikat AH, Normolle D. et al. NF-kappaB hyperactivation in tumor tissues allows tumor-selective reprogramming of the chemokine microenvironment to enhance the recruitment of cytolytic T effector cells.Cancer Res. 2012;72(15):3735–3743. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Weir GM, Liwski RS, Mansour M. Immune modulation by chemotherapy or immunotherapy to enhance cancer vaccines. Cancers (Basel) 2011;3(3):3114–3142.[PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Wheeler CJ, Black KL, Liu G, Mazer M, Zhang XX, Pepkowitz S. et al. Vaccination elicits correlated immune and clinical responses in glioblastoma multiforme patients.Cancer Res. 2008;68(14):5955–5964. [PubMed]
  • Zitvogel L, Apetoh L, Ghiringhelli F, Andre F, Tesniere A, Kroemer G. The anticancer immune response: indispensable for therapeutic success? J Clin Invest.2008;118(6):1991–2001. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Ridolfi L, Petrini M, Granato AM, Gentilcore G, Simeone E, Ascierto PA. et al. Low-dose temozolomide before dendritic-cell vaccination reduces (specifically) CD4+CD25++Foxp3+ regulatory T-cells in advanced melanoma patients. J Transl Med. 2013;11:135. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Nowak AK, Lake RA, Marzo AL, Scott B, Heath WR, Collins EJ. et al. Induction of tumor cell apoptosis in vivo increases tumor antigen cross-presentation, cross-priming rather than cross-tolerizing host tumor-specific CD8 T cells. J Immunol.2003;170(10):4905–4913. [PubMed]
  • Le HK, Graham L, Cha E, Morales JK, Manjili MH, Bear HD. Gemcitabine directly inhibits myeloid derived suppressor cells in BALB/c mice bearing 4T1 mammary carcinoma and augments expansion of T cells from tumor-bearing mice. Int Immunopharmacol. 2009;9(7-8):900–909. [PubMed]
  • von Mehren M, Arlen P, Tsang KY, Rogatko A, Meropol N, Cooper HS. et al. Pilot study of a dual gene recombinant avipox vaccine containing both carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and B7.1 transgenes in patients with recurrent CEA-expressing adenocarcinomas. Clin Cancer Res. 2000;6(6):2219–2228. [PubMed]
  • Palermo B, Del Bello D, Sottini A, Serana F, Ghidini C, Gualtieri N. et al. Dacarbazine treatment before peptide vaccination enlarges T-cell repertoire diversity of melan-a-specific, tumor-reactive CTL in melanoma patients. Cancer Res.2010;70(18):7084–7092. [PubMed]
  • Antonia SJ, Mirza N, Fricke I, Chiappori A, Thompson P, Williams N. et al. Combination of p53 cancer vaccine with chemotherapy in patients with extensive stage small cell lung cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2006;12(3 Pt 1):878–887. [PubMed]
  • Lesterhuis WJ, de Vries IJ, Aarntzen EA, de Boer A, Scharenborg NM, van de Rakt M. et al. A pilot study on the immunogenicity of dendritic cell vaccination during adjuvant oxaliplatin/capecitabine chemotherapy in colon cancer patients. Br J Cancer.2010;103(9):1415–1421. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Hauser SH, Calorini L, Wazer DE, Gattoni-Celli S. Radiation-enhanced expression of major histocompatibility complex class I antigen H-2Db in B16 melanoma cells.Cancer Res. 1993;53(8):1952–1955. [PubMed]
  • Hareyama M, Imai K, Kubo K, Takahashi H, Koshiba H, Hinoda Y. et al. Effect of radiation on the expression of carcinoembryonic antigen of human gastric adenocarcinoma cells. Cancer. 1991;67(9):2269–2274. [PubMed]
  • Dunn PL, North RJ. Selective radiation resistance of immunologically induced T cells as the basis for irradiation-induced T-cell-mediated regression of immunogenic tumor.J Leukoc Biol. 1991;49(4):388–396. [PubMed]
  • Zhang B, Bowerman NA, Salama JK, Schmidt H, Spiotto MT, Schietinger A. et al. Induced sensitization of tumor stroma leads to eradication of established cancer by T cells. J Exp Med. 2007;204(1):49–55. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Heine A, Held SA, Bringmann A, Holderried TA, Brossart P. Immunomodulatory effects of anti-angiogenic drugs. Leukemia. 2011;25(6):899–905. [PubMed]
  • Ko JS, Zea AH, Rini BI, Ireland JL, Elson P, Cohen P. et al. Sunitinib mediates reversal of myeloid-derived suppressor cell accumulation in renal cell carcinoma patients. Clin Cancer Res. 2009;15(6):2148–2157. [PubMed]
  • Ozao-Choy J, Ma G, Kao J, Wang GX, Meseck M, Sung M. et al. The novel role of tyrosine kinase inhibitor in the reversal of immune suppression and modulation of tumor microenvironment for immune-based cancer therapies. Cancer Res.2009;69(6):2514–2522. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Knight DA, Ngiow SF, Li M, Parmenter T, Mok S, Cass A. et al. Host immunity contributes to the anti-melanoma activity of BRAF inhibitors. J Clin Invest.2013;123(3):1371–1381. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Ott PA, Henry T, Baranda SJ, Frleta D, Manches O, Bogunovic D. et al. Inhibition of both BRAF and MEK in BRAF(V600E) mutant melanoma restores compromised dendritic cell (DC) function while having differential direct effects on DC properties.Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2013;62(4):811–822. [PubMed]

Articles from The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine are provided here courtesy of Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine





https://dendritic.info/dc-therapy/

Dendritic Cell (DC) Therapy or so-called Dendritic Cell vaccine is a newly emerging and potent form of immune therapy used to treat cancer. Only recently (2010) approved by the US FDA, dendritic cell therapy is an immune therapy which harnesses the body’s own immune system to fight cancer. The dendritic cell itself is an immune cell whose role is the recognition, processing and presentation of foreign antigens to the T-cells in the effector arm of the immune system. Although dendritic cell are potent cells, they are not usually present in adequate quantity to allow for a potent immune response. Dendritic cell therapy thus involves the harvesting of blood cells (monocytes) from a patient and processing them in the laboratory to produce dendritic cells which are then given back to a patient in order to allow massive dendritic cell participation in optimally activating the immune system. To learn more about vaccine and dendritic cell therapy for cancer, please read the following articles:
The National Cancer Institute has a very concise primer on Treating and Preventing Cancer with Vaccines on their site.
Dendritic cells and immunity against cancer” by K. Palucka, H. Ueno1, J. Fay, and J. Banchereau of Baylor Institute for Immunology Research and Sammons Cancer Center, Baylor University Medical Center,Dallas, TX; and Department of Gene and Cell Medicine and Department of Medicine, Immunology Institute, Mount SinaiSchool ofMedicine, New York,NY,USA as published in Journal of Internal Medicine.
Volume 269, Issue 1, 2010.
Dendritic Cells (I): Biological functions” and “Dendritic Cells (II) Role and therapeutic implications in cancer” by S. Satthaporn and O. Eremin of the U. of Nottingham and Lincoln County Hospital, UK as published in J. of the Royal College Surgeons, Edinb.
46:9-20 and 159-167, 2001.
Clinical Applications of Dendritic Cell Cancer Vaccines” by Dr. Joseph Barr of the U. of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA USA in The Oncologist 4(2): 140-144, 1999.
Also, a slide show / lecture presentation by Dr. Michael Morse on “Current Status of Dendritic-Cell Vaccines” is available on the Medscape site from WebMD as part of an educational session on “Therapeutic Cancer Vaccines: Targeting the Future of Cancer Treatment” but requires registration to enter the site.
There is also a youtube video presentation on “Using Dendritic Cells to Create Cancer Vaccines” by Professor Edgar Engleman of Standford University.
Abstracts of recent reviews on Pubmed include articles by IG Schmidt-Wolf et al. on “Dendritic Cell, the immunotherapeutic cell for cancer”, TL Whiteside and C Odous from U. of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute on “Dendritic cell biology and cancer therapy”, EM Hersh et al. on “Clinical Applications of dendritic cell vaccination in the treatment of cancer
Also, please refer to our Research Archives for many related abstracts on the therapy.

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Below is an alphabetical list of the educational picture slideshows available on eMedicineHealth. Each slideshow covers a medical or health topic and includes images, illustrations, or pictures and summary information discussing the topic. Scroll through each slide by clicking on the Next button. At the end of each slideshow you'll find links to additional related information on the topic.


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Tinnitus

1. Chadha NK, Gordon KA, James AL, Papsin BC. Tinnitus is prevalent in children with cochlear implants. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology. 2009;73:671-675. [abstract]

2. Akdogan O, Ozcan I, Ozbek C, Dere H. Tinnitus after cochlear implantation. Auris Nasus Larynx. 2009;36:210-212. [abstract]

3. Pan T, Tyler RS, Ji H, Coelho C, Gehringer AK, Gogel SA. Changes in the tinnitus handicap questionnaire after cochlear implantation. American Journal of Audiology. 2009;18:144-151. [abstract]

4. Andersson G, Freijd A, Baguley DM, Idrizbegovic E. Tinnitus distress, anxiety, depression, and hearing problems among cochlear implant patients with tinnitus. Journal of the American Academy of Audiology. 2009;20:315-319. [abstract]

5. Rothholtz VS, Tang Q, Wu EC, Fine EL, Djalilian H, Zeng F-G. Exploring the parametric space of tinnitus suppression in a patient with a cochlear implant. Laryngoscope. 2009;119.

6. Di NW, Cianfrone F, Scorpecci A, Cantore I, Giannantonio S, Paludetti G. Transtympanic electrical stimulation for immediate and long-term tinnitus suppression. International Tinnitus Journal. 2009;15:100-106.[abstract]

7. Litre CF, Theret E, Tran H et al. Surgical treatment by electrical stimulation of the auditory cortex for intractable tinnitus. Brain Stimulation. 2009;2:132-137. [abstract]

8. Evans RW, Ishiyama G. Migraine with transient unilateral hearing loss and tinnitus. Headache: The Journal of Head & Face Pain. 2009;49:756-759. [abstract]

9. Pirodda A, Brandolini C, Raimondi MC, Ferri GG, Borghi C. Tinnitus as a warning for preventing vasovagal syncope. Medical Hypotheses. 2009;73:370-371. [abstract]

10. Anderson JE, Teitel D, Wu YW. Venous hum causing tinnitus: case report and review of the literature. Clinical Pediatrics. 2009;48:87-89. [abstract]

11. Liess BD, Lollar KW, Christiansen SG, Vaslow D. Pulsatile tinnitus: a harbinger of a greater ill? Head & Neck. 2009;31:269-273. [abstract]

12. Singh DP, Forte AJ, Brewer MB, Nowygrod R. Bilateral carotid endarterectomy as treatment of vascular pulsatile tinnitus. Journal of Vascular Surgery. 2009;50:183-185. [abstract]

13. Delgado F, Munoz F, Bravo-Rodriguez F, Jurado-Ramos A, Oteros R. Treatment of dural arteriovenous fistulas presenting as pulsatile tinnitus. Otology and Neurotology. 2009;30:897-902. [abstract]

14. Cowley PO, Jones R, Tuch P, McAuliffe W. Pulsatile tinnitus from reversal of flow in an aberrant occipital artery: Resolved after carotid artery stenting. American Journal of Neuroradiology. 2009;30:995-997. [abstract]

15. Stimmer H, Borrmann A, Loer C, Arnold W, Rummeny EJ. Monaural tinnitus from a contralateral inferior colliculus hemorrhage. Audiology & Neurotology. 2009;14:35-38. [abstract]

16. Latifpour DH, Grenner J, Sjodahl C. The effect of a new treatment based on somatosensory stimulation in a group of patients with somatically related tinnitus. International Tinnitus Journal. 2009;15:94-99. [abstract]

17. Department of Health. Provision of services for adults with tinnitus: a good practice guide. 2009. [full text]

18. DH. Tinnitus Map of Medicine care pathway. 2010. [Full text]

19. BTA. Tinnitus: guidelines for primary care. 2010. [Full text]

20. Schneider P, Andermann M, Wengenroth M et al. Reduced volume of Heschl's gyrus in tinnitus. NeuroImage. 2009;45:927-939. [abstract]

21. Landgrebe M, Langguth B, Rosengarth K et al. Structural brain changes in tinnitus: grey matter decrease in auditory and non-auditory brain areas. NeuroImage. 2009;46:213-218. [abstract]

22. Melcher JR, Levine RA, Bergevin C, Norris B. The auditory midbrain of people with tinnitus: Abnormal sound-evoked activity revisited. Hearing Research. 2009;257:63-74. [abstract]

23. Lanting CP, de KE, van DP. Neural activity underlying tinnitus generation: Results from PET and fMRI. Hearing Research. 2009;255:1-13. [abstract]

24. Kaltenbach JA. Insights on the origins of tinnitus: an overview of recent research. Hearing Journal. 2009;62:26-31. [Full text]

25. Shulman A, Goldstein B, Strashun AM. Final common pathway for tinnitus: theoretical and clinical implications of neuroanatomical substrates. International Tinnitus Journal. 2009;15:5-50. [abstract]

26. Schutte NS, Noble W, Malouff JM, Bhullar N. Evaluation of a model of distress related to tinnitus. International Journal of Audiology. 2009;48:428-432. [abstract]

27. Hesser H, Pereswetoff-Morath CE, Andersson G. Consequences of controlling background sounds: the effect of experiential avoidance on tinnitus interference. Rehabilitation Psychology. 2009;54:381-390.[abstract]

28. Argstatter H, Krick C, Bolay HV. Music therapy for chronic tinnitus. Heidelberg treatment model. Psychotherapeut. 2009;54:17-26. [abstract]

29. Lugli M, Romani R, Ponzi S, Bacciu S, Parmigiani S. The windowed sound therapy: A new empirical approach for an effective personalized treatment of tinnitus. International Tinnitus Journal. 2009;15:51-61.[abstract]

30. Langguth B, Salvi R, Elgoyhen AB. Emerging pharmacotherapy of tinnitus. Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs. 2009;14:687-702. [abstract]

31. Campbell KCM. Emerging pharmacologic treatments for hearing loss and tinnitus. ASHA Leader. 2009;14:14-18. [Full text]

32. Hesser H, Westin V, Hayes SC, Andersson G. Clients' in-session acceptance and cognitive defusion behaviors in acceptance-based treatment of tinnitus distress. Behaviour Research & Therapy. 2009;47:523-528. [abstract]

33. Hesser H, Andersson G. The role of anxiety sensitivity and behavioral avoidance in tinnitus disability. International Journal of Audiology. 2009;48:295-299. [abstract]

34. Shulman A, Goldstein B. Subjective idiopathic tinnitus and palliative care: a plan for diagnosis and treatment. Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America. 2009;42:15-38. [abstract]

35. Forti S, Costanzo S, Crocetti A, Pignataro L, Del BL, Ambrosetti U. Are results of tinnitus retraining therapy maintained over time? 18-month follow-up after completion of therapy. Audiology & Neuro-Otology. 2009;14:286-289. [abstract]

36. Bessman P, Heider T, Watten VP, Watten RG. The tinnitus intensive therapy habituation program: a 2-year follow-up pilot study on subjective tinnitus. Rehabilitation Psychology. 2009;54:133-138. [abstract]

37. Gudex C, Skellgaard PH, West T, Sorensen J. Effectiveness of a tinnitus management programme: A 2-year follow-up study. BMC Ear, Nose and Throat Disorders. 2009;9. [Full text]

38. Henry J, Zaugg T, Myers P, Kendall C, Turbin M. Principles and application of educational counseling used in progressive audiologic tinnitus management. Noise and Health. 2009;11:33-48. [abstract]

1. Hazell JW, Jastreboff PJ. Tinnitus. I: Auditory mechanisms: a model for tinnitus and hearing impairment. J Otolaryngol. 1990;19:1-5. [Abstract]

2. Jastreboff PJ, Jastreboff MM. Tinnitus Retraining Therapy (TRT) as a method for treatment of tinnitus and hyperacusis patients. J Am Acad Audiol. 2000 Mar;11(3):162-77. [Abstract]

3. Marcondes RA, Sanchez TG, Kii MA, Langguth et al. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation improve tinnitus in normal hearing patients: a double-blind controlled, clinical and neuroimaging outcome study. Eur J Neurol. 2009. [Epub ahead of print] ) [Abstract]

4. Cannon SC Pathomechanisms in channelopathies of skeletal muscle and brain. Annu Rev Neurosci. 2006;29:387-415. [Abstract]

5. Davies E, Knox E, Donaldson I. The usefulness of nimodipine, an L-calcium channel antagonist, in the treatment of tinnitus. Br J Audiol. 1994;28:125-129. [Abstract]

6. Baguley DM, Jones S, Wilkins I, Axon PR, Moffat DA. The inhibitory effect of intravenous lidocaine infusion on tinnitus after translabyrinthine removal of vestibular schwannoma: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Otol Neurotol. 2005;26:169-176. [Abstract]

Eggermont JJ. Cortical tonotopic map reorganization and its implications for treatment of tinnitus. Acta Otolaryngol Suppl. 2006;9-12. [Abstract]

Hoke ES, Muhlnickel W, Ross B, Hoke M. Tinnitus and event-related activity of the auditory cortex. Audiol Neurootol. 1998;3:300-331. [Abstract]

Mirz F, Pedersen B, Ishizu K et al. Positron emission tomography of cortical centers of tinnitus. Hear Res. 1999;134:133-144. [Abstract]

Muhlnickel W, Elbert T, Taub E, Flor H. Reorganization of auditory cortex in tinnitus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:10340-10343. [Abstract]

Norena AJ, Eggermont JJ. Enriched acoustic environment after noise trauma abolishes neural signs of tinnitus. Neuroreport. 2006;17:559-563. [Abstract]

Schlee W, Hartmann T, Langguth B, Weisz N. Abnormal resting-state cortical coupling in chronic tinnitus. BMC Neurosci. 2009;10:11. [Full text]

Schlee W, Mueller N, Hartmann T, Keil J, Lorenz I, Weisz N. Mapping cortical hubs in tinnitus. BMC Biol. 2009;7:80. [Full text]

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HIPPOCRATE'S OATH

"I swear by Apollo, the healer, Asclepius, Hygieia, and Panacea, and I take to witness all the gods, all the goddesses, to keep according to my ability and my judgment, the following Oath and agreement:

To consider dear to me, as my parents, him who taught me this art; to live in common with him and, if necessary, to share my goods with him; To look upon his children as my own brothers, to teach them this art.

I will prescribe regimens for the good of my patients according to my ability and my judgment and never do harm to anyone.

I will not give a lethal drug to anyone if I am asked, nor will I advise such a plan; and similarly I will not give a woman a pessaryto cause an abortion.

But I will preserve the purity of my life and my arts.

I will not cut for stone, even for patients in whom the disease is manifest; I will leave this operation to be performed by practitioners, specialists in this art.

In every house where I come I will enter only for the good of my patients, keeping myself far from all intentional ill-doing and all seduction and especially from the pleasures of love with women or with men, be they free or slaves.

All that may come to my knowledge in the exercise of my profession or in daily commerce with men, which ought not to be spread abroad, I will keep secret and will never reveal.

If I keep this oath faithfully, may I enjoy my life and practice my art, respected by all men and in all times; but if I swerve from it or violate it, may the reverse be my lot."

MAIMONIDE'S PRAYER

"Almighty God, Thou has created the human body with infinite wisdom. Ten thousand times ten thousand organs hast Thou combined in it that act unceasingly and harmoniously to preserve the whole in all its beauty the body which is the envelope of the immortal soul. They are ever acting in perfect order, agreement and accord. Yet, when the frailty of matter or the unbridling of passions deranges this order or interrupts this accord, then forces clash and the body crumbles into the primal dust from which it came. Thou sendest to man diseases as beneficent messengers to foretell approaching danger and to urge him to avert it.

"Thou has blest Thine earth, Thy rivers and Thy mountains with healing substances; they enable Thy creatures to alleviate their sufferings and to heal their illnesses. Thou hast endowed man with the wisdom to relieve the suffering of his brother, to recognize his disorders, to extract the healing substances, to discover their powers and to prepare and to apply them to suit every ill. In Thine Eternal Providence Thou hast chosen me to watch over the life and health of Thy creatures. I am now about to apply myself to the duties of my profession. Support me, Almighty God, in these great labors that they may benefit mankind, for without Thy help not even the least thing will succeed.

"Inspire me with love for my art and for Thy creatures. Do not allow thirst for profit, ambition for renown and admiration, to interfere with my profession, for these are the enemies of truth and of love for mankind and they can lead astray in the great task of attending to the welfare of Thy creatures. Preserve the strength of my body and of my soul that they ever be ready to cheerfully help and support rich and poor, good and bad, enemy as well as friend. In the sufferer let me see only the human being. Illumine my mind that it recognize what presents itself and that it may comprehend what is absent or hidden. Let it not fail to see what is visible, but do not permit it to arrogate to itself the power to see what cannot be seen, for delicate and indefinite are the bounds of the great art of caring for the lives and health of Thy creatures. Let me never be absent- minded. May no strange thoughts divert my attention at the bedside of the sick, or disturb my mind in its silent labors, for great and sacred are the thoughtful deliberations required to preserve the lives and health of Thy creatures.

"Grant that my patients have confidence in me and my art and follow my directions and my counsel. Remove from their midst all charlatans and the whole host of officious relatives and know-all nurses, cruel people who arrogantly frustrate the wisest purposes of our art and often lead Thy creatures to their death.

"Should those who are wiser than I wish to improve and instruct me, let my soul gratefully follow their guidance; for vast is the extent of our art. Should conceited fools, however, censure me, then let love for my profession steel me against them, so that I remain steadfast without regard for age, for reputation, or for honor, because surrender would bring to Thy creatures sickness and death.

"Imbue my soul with gentleness and calmness when older colleagues, proud of their age, wish to displace me or to scorn me or disdainfully to teach me. May even this be of advantage to me, for they know many things of which I am ignorant, but let not their arrogance give me pain. For they are old and old age is not master of the passions. I also hope to attain old age upon this earth, before Thee, Almighty God!

"Let me be contented in everything except in the great science of my profession. Never allow the thought to arise in me that I have attained to sufficient knowledge, but vouchsafe to me the strength, the leisure and the ambition ever to extend my knowledge. For art is great, but the mind of man is ever expanding.

"Almighty God! Thou hast chosen me in Thy mercy to watch over the life and death of Thy creatures. I now apply myself to my profession. Support me in this great task so that it may benefit mankind, for without Thy help not even the least thing will succeed."

Information for Health Professionals

Information for Patients

Modern challenged parts of the oath:

  1. To teach medicine to the sons of my teacher. In the past, medical schools gave preferential consideration to the children of physicians.
  2. To practice and prescribe to the best of my ability for the good of my patients, and to try to avoid harming them. This beneficial intention is the purpose of the physician. However, this item is still invoked in the modern discussions of euthanasia.
  3. I will not give a lethal drug to anyone if I am asked, nor will I advise such a plan. Physician organizations in most countries have strongly denounced physician participation in legal executions. However, in a small number of cases, most notably the U.S. states of Oregon,[10] Washington,[11]Montana,[12] and in the Kingdom of the Netherlands,[13] a doctor can prescribe euthanasia with the patient's consent.
  4. Similarly, I will not give a woman a pessary to cause an abortion. Since the legalization of abortion in many countries, the inclusion of the anti-abortion sentence of the Hippocratic oath has been a source of contention.
  5. To avoid violating the morals of my community. Many licensing agencies will revoke a physician's license for offending the morals of the community ("moral turpitude").
  6. I will not cut for stone, even for patients in whom the disease is manifest; I will leave this operation to be performed by practitioners, specialists in this art. The "stones" referred to are kidney stones or bladder stones, removal of which was judged too menial for physicians, and therefore was left for barbers (the forerunners of modern surgeons). Surgery was not recognized as a specialty at that time. This sentence is now interpreted as acknowledging that it is impossible for any single physician to maintain expertise in all areas. It also highlights the different historical origins of the surgeon and the physician.
  7. To keep the good of the patient as the highest priority. There may be other conflicting 'good purposes,' such as community welfare, conserving economic resources, supporting the criminal justice system, or simply making money for the physician or his employer that provide recurring challenges to physicians
http://www.worldallergy.org/educational_programs/world_allergy_forum/barcelona2008/rabe/

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